Juvenile megaloblastic anaemia 1 (OMIM # 261100) is a rare autosomic disorder characterized by selective cobalamin mal-absorption and inconstant proteinuria produced by mutations in either CUBN or AMN genes.
Several syndromes present with megaloblastic anemia such as congenital megaloblastic anemia due to intrinsic factor defect and juvenile megaloblastic anemia with proteinuria due to defects in the cubilin or the amnionless protein.
Furthermore, the recent characterization of the CUBN gene encoding the intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 receptor (cubilin) provides a basis to identify the causative mutations in patients suffering from a hereditary syndrome of hyperhomocysteinemia that presents with megaloblastic anemia and proteinuria.
Megaloblastic anaemia 1 (MGA1, OMIM 261100) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by juvenile megaloblastic anaemia, as well as neurological symptoms that may be the only manifestations.
In conclusion, the present molecular and genetic information on human cubilin now provides circumstantial evidence that an impaired synthesis, processing, or ligand binding of cubilin is the molecular background of this hereditary form of megaloblastic anemia.
We describe three individuals from two families with a recessive inborn error of metabolism, characterized by megaloblastic anemia and/or pancytopenia, severe cerebral folate deficiency, and cerebral tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency due to a germline missense mutation in DHFR, resulting in profound enzyme deficiency.
Complete absence of TC-II or total functional abnormality causes tissue vitamin B12 deficiency resulting in a severe disease with megaloblastic anemia and immunologic and intestinal abnormalities in the first months of life.
Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from mutations in SLC19A2, and is mainly characterized by megaloblastic anemia, diabetes, and progressive sensorineural hearing loss.
Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anaemia (TRMA), due to mutations in the thiamine transporter SLC19A2, is associated with the classical clinical triad of diabetes, deafness, and megaloblastic anaemia.
Besides reporting a new mutation on the gene SLC19A2 for the first time in the literature, we highlight the recognition of this syndrome--when megaloblastic anemia and diabetes mellitus coexists--and the role of thiamine replacement for the treatment of both disorders.