In particular, the infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II) in the apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (apoE-/-) and low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice (LDLR-/-) to induce aortic aneurysm has been extensively used in the field.
XBP1u, but not XBP1s, was markedly repressed in the aorta during the early onset of aortic aneurysm in both angiotensin II-infused apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE<sup>-/-</sup>) and CaPO<sub>4</sub> (calcium phosphate)-induced C57BL/6J murine models, in parallel with a decrease in smooth muscle cell contractile apparatus proteins.
Parenteral administration of enoxaparin (FXa/IIa inhibitor) and fondaparinux (FXa inhibitor) over 14 days reduced to severity of aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis in AngII-infused ApoE<sup>-/-</sup> mice.
<i>Arhgap18</i> global knockout (<i>Arhgap18</i><sup>-/</sup><sup>-</sup>) mice exhibited a highly synthetic, proteolytic, and proinflammatory smooth muscle phenotype under basal conditions and when challenged with angiotensin II, developed TAA with increased frequency and severity compared with littermate controls.
After infusion of angiotensin II at 1000 ng/kg per minute, 73% of Pparg(C/-) mice developed atypical suprarenal aortic aneurysms: superior mesenteric arteries were dilated with extensive collagen deposition in adventitia and infiltrations of inflammatory cells.
In early atherosclerotic lesions, Rgs1 regulates macrophage accumulation and is required for the formation and rupture of Angiotensin II-induced aortic aneurysms, through effects on leukocyte retention.