This study evaluated the possible association between SNPs in cytokines coding genes, namely IL10, IL6 and IFNG, cytokines serum levels and clinical assessment' scores in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis(RA).
In activated macrophages, N-PD decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, while N-CU increased levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10, and N-PD/CU exhibited best therapeutic effect in vitro, suggesting co-delivery of PD and CU may synergistically control the course of RA.
Whereas, CM3D was characterised by a prevailing expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and LIF, along with trophic factors involved in different mechanisms leading to tissue regeneration, such as PDGF-BB, FGF-2, I-309, SCF, and GM-CSF; CM2D presented relatively higher levels of IL-6, MCP-1, and IL-21, with recognised pro-inflammatory roles in joint disease and pleiotropic effects in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
In summary, our present study demonstrated that down-regulation of miR-98 inhibited the proliferation and promoted the apoptosis of TNF-α-stimulated HS partly by targeting IL-10 and regulating NF-κB signaling pathway, insinuating miR-98 as a candidate biomarker in RA.
This paper corroborates the idea of a correlation between sex, IL-10 polymorphisms and RA, which should be studied in depth, since recent papers have shown that IL-10 injected into joints seems to decrease inflammation.
IL4-10 fusion protein is a novel drug, signalling cells to induce immunoregulatory activity that overcomes limitations of IL-4 and IL-10 stand-alone therapy, and therefore has therapeutic potential for inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.
IL-10 deregulation plays a role in the development of a large number of inflammatory diseases such as neuropathic pain, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy.
The level of IL-17 increased with the increase of synovial inflammation in the rheumatoid arthritis-induced rats, and the level of IL-10 increased as the inflammation subsided, which shows that both cytokines are related to the occurrence and development of rheumatoid arthritis and its inflammation.
TAN had therapeutic effects on RA by decreasing the oxidative stress damage and regulating inflammatory cytokine expression, including suppression of the accumulation of MDA products, decreasing the IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and PGE2 levels, enhancing the IL-10 and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, which was through upregulating Nrf-2 signaling pathway.
Cytokine-mediated processes such as the activation of T helper 2 cells by IL-4 and IL-13, the resolution of inflammation by IL-9, IL-5-induced eosinophil expansion, IL-33-mediated macrophage polarization, the production of IL-10 by regulatory B cells and IL-27-mediated suppression of lymphoid follicle formation are all involved in governing the regulation and resolution of inflammation in RA.
IL-10 mRNA levels in LPS-treated RASFs were moderately increased by pretreating cilostazol (1-10 μM) or celecoxib (10-50 μM) monotherapy, but 3 μM of cilostazol add-on for 30 μM celecoxib treatment synergistically increased IL-10 mRNA levels and IL-10 release to culture media.
The in vitro study using fibroblast-like synovial cells cultured in synovial fluid, demonstrated the ability of these vesicles to downregulate the production of anti-apoptotic proteins IAP1 and IAP2 and stimulate the production of IL-10, while the production of IL-6 and IL-15 and reactive oxygen species was reduced, confirming their suitability in counteracting pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.
We further found out the concentration of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and MCP-1 was higher in their synovial fluid which may mediate neutrophil autophagy in RA via cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and IL-17 signaling pathway.
The roles of these cytokines are different in RA and lupus, as high IL-10 in RA is associated with increased depressive symptoms, but high IL-10 in the lupus patients is associated with decreased depression.
ROS/TLR4- coupled activation resulted in the release of HMGB1, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 in conjunction with upregulation of myeloid-related protein (MRP8/14) inflammatory markers that may contribute to the RA pathophysiology.
Contrary to CDKN1A silencing, CDKN1A over-expression significantly inhibited the proliferation and invasion of HFLS-RA, arrested HFLS-RA in G0/G1 phase and down-regulated the expressions of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, while it up-regulated the expression of IL-10.