The glucocorticoid-insensitive hyperrresponsiveness in isolated human airways induced by IL-13 and IL-4 provides further evidence that the IL-4Rα pathway should be targeted as a new strategy for treatment of airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma.
This article reviews the role of eosinophils in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma and discusses the potential advantageous biologic effects of benralizumab in comparison with other monoclonal antibodies targeting the IL-5 ligand.
We show that transgenic mice that overexpress interleukin-5 (IL-5), a cytokine required for eosinophil hematopoiesis, give birth to WT offspring that have significantly increased airway epithelial nerve density and airway hyperreactivity that persists into adulthood.
Budesonide inhibited airway hyperreactivity, eosinophil counts in the lung and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and CCL11, IL-13, and IL-23p19 release in the BAL of mice sensitized and challenged with <i>Af</i> (<i>p</i> < 0.05).
<b>Expert opinion</b>: IL-5 antagonism has paved the way for an additional personalized therapeutic opportunity for use in severe asthma with eosinophilic inflammation, though there is limited evidence on the long-term implications of suppressing/depleting eosinophils and the duration for which they should be administered.
These changes are mirrored in serum and should be considered in the light of the downmodulating role of CD26 in major chemokines related to the pathogenesis of asthma such as CCL11 (eotaxin), CCL5 (RANTES), and CXCL12a (SDF-1α).
Development of antagonistic antibody (Ab) against interleukin-4 receptor alpha (IL-4Rα) subunit of IL-4/IL-13 receptors is a promising therapeutic strategy for T helper 2 (T<sub>H</sub>2)-mediated allergic diseases such as asthma and atopic dermatitis.
The mechanism of MSC therapy in asthma seems to be regulating the balance of Th1 cytokine and Th2 cytokines (IFN-γ: Hedges's g = 4.779 ± 1.408 with 95% CI: 1.099-2.725, P < 0.001; IL-4: Hedges's g = -10.781 ± 1.062 with 95% CI: -12.863 ∼ -8.699, P < 0.001; IL-5: Hedges's g = -10.537 ± 1.269 with 95% CI: -13.025 ∼ -8.050, P < 0.001; IL-13: Hedges's g = -6.773 ± 0.788 with 95% CI: -8.318 ∼ -5.229, P < 0.001).
However, another important source of these type 2 cytokines, especially interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13, are CD8<sup>+</sup> T-cells, which are increasingly proposed to play an important role in asthma pathogenesis, because they are abundant and are comparatively insensitive to corticosteroids.
Preventive treatment with L. rhamnosus GG (but not L. rhamnosus GR-1) resulted in a significant decrease in bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil counts, lung interleukin-13 and interleukin-5 levels, and airway hyperreactivity.
Those with asthma had higher serum interferon (IFN)-α, but lower serum tumour necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-6, CXCL8, CXCL9, IL-10, IL-17 and CCL2 levels (all p<0.05); both groups had similar serum IL-13, total IgE, periostin and blood eosinophil gene expression levels.
Type-2 biomarkers and related cytokines (IL-5, IL-13), lung function and asthma symptoms were measured in 44 poorly-controlled severe oral corticosteroid (OCS)-dependent asthmatics for up to 88 days after a 7-day prednisolone boost (0.5 mg/kg).
Eosinophil differentiation, survival, and activation are preferentially regulated by IL-5, a cytokine that binds to the IL-5 receptor (IL-5R), which is located on the surface of eosinophils or basophils and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis and severity of asthma.