Subgroup analyses by menopausal status, invasiveness, or estrogen receptor status of breast cancer did not reveal evidence of association between telomere length in blood cells and subsequent breast cancer risk.
Immunohistochemistry using the antibodies p63, CK5 and p-cadherin, and also estrogen receptor (ER) and Human Epidermal Receptor Growth Factor 2 (HER2), was per-formed on 168 samples from a breast cancer case series.
The positive association of postmenopausal BC risk and specifically estrogen receptor (ER)-positive BC, is presumably due largely to accumulation of estrogen in the adipose tissue of the breast and other tissues.
A panel of ER<sup>+</sup> BC cell lines adapted to long-term oestrogen deprivation (LTED) and expressing ESR1 <sup>wt</sup> or ESR1 <sup>Y537S</sup> , modelling acquired resistance to an aromatase-inhibitor (AI), were treated in vitro with a combination of RAD001 and neratinib (pan-ERBB inhibitor) in the presence or absence of oestradiol (E2), tamoxifen (4-OHT), or fulvestrant (ICI182780).
Because of the role of estrogens in promoting the growth and progression of breast cancer, there is great interest in exploring ways to functionally inactivate the ER, thereby suppressing ER-mediated gene expression and cell proliferation.
Expert opinion: The discovery of GPER-1 as a novel estrogen receptor is unique and the signaling pathways activated by its stimulation, when compared to the classical nuclear ERα, indicate a potential role of GPER-1 in the genesis and mechanisms of drug resistance in breast cancer.
These studies also provide evidence for combining TOB1 inhibition and AKT/mTOR inhibition as a therapeutic strategy, with potential translational significance for the management of patients with ER-positive breast cancers.
Collectively, the results indicate that FGF-8 acts to facilitate cell proliferation by upregulating endogenous estrogenic actions as well as by suppressing BMP receptor signaling in ER-expressing breast cancer cells.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects of CCT137690 on estrogen receptor (ER)-positive human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and ER-negative human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231).