The induction of both pNR-1 and pNR-2 requires similar physiological concentrations of estradiol and is near maximal at 10(-10) M. An increase in the levels of the RNAs is seen after 30 min of estrogen treatment, but pNR-1 reaches its maximal concentration faster than pNR-2. pNR-1 and pNR-2 were not expressed in all human breast cancer cell lines tested. pNR-1 was expressed and regulated by estrogen in the estrogen receptor-positive cell lines, MCF-7, T-47D, and ZR 75, whereas pNR-2 was not expressed in the T-47D cell line. pNR-1 and pNR-2 were not detected in two estrogen receptor-negative cell lines (BT20 and HBL 100).
This finding suggests that different causal mechanisms operate for these two types of breast cancer and supports the hypothesis that an early first birth protects against breast cancer by reducing the level of ERs in the mammary epithelial cells from which carcinomas develop.
Sixty-one % of these tumors had detectable PIP mRNA; a positive correlation (r = 0.52; P less than 0.01) was found between PIP mRNA levels in breast biopsy samples and estrogen receptor content, a known prognostic indicator in human breast cancer.
Using these assays we show that determination of pS2 gene expression allows the definition of subclasses of estrogen-receptor-containing breast cancers that may be used to more precisely identify estrogen-dependent tumors.
In estrogen-receptor-positive human breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, ZR75-1), estrogens specifically increase the secretion into the culture medium of a 52,000 Da (52K) glycoprotein and stimulate cell proliferation.
The present results show that p21 expression in human breast cancer could be a marker of tumor aggressiveness and might thus improve the predictive power of known prognostic factors such as estrogen receptor and nodal status.
We have used MCF-7, the human breast cancer cell line, which is estrogen receptor-positive, and the HeLa cell line, which is estrogen receptor-negative, to study the mechanisms by which estrogen induces prolactin gene transcription.
We have examined the effects of reversibly and irreversibly binding estrogenic and antiestrogenic ligands for the estrogen receptor on pS2 RNA accumulation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and on pS2-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) fusion gene expression in transfected MCF-7 cells.
Initial studies in human breast cancer cell lines suggested a possible association between the absence of one allele and the absence of ER expression; subsequent analysis of allele distribution and frequency in 188 primary human breast tumor biopsies did indeed show a significant but not complete correlation between the absence of one allele and the failure to express ER.
These data support the view that ER and EGR-R gene expression is inversely regulated in human breast cancer and describe for the first time an inhibitory effect of a phorbol ester on steroid hormone receptor gene expression.