The discovery of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the success story of EGFR tyrosine kinases inhibitors (TKIs) have changed the paradigm of cancer therapy from empirical cytotoxic chemotherapy to molecular-targeted cancer therapy.
The Cancer Genome Atlas analysis revealed that somatic EGFR, receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (ERBB2), Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 3 (ERBB3) and Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 (ERBB4) gene mutations (ERBB family mutations) occur alone or co-occur with somatic mutations in the gene encoding the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) catalytic subunit (PIK3CA) in 19% of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancers.
Recent findings from a prospective clinical study involving multiregion whole-exome sequencing suggest that driver mutations in cancer-relevant genes including EGFR and TP53 are often clonal and precede whole-genome duplication events in early lung carcinogenesis.
Tumor-specific biomarkers are a prerequisite for the development of targeted imaging and therapy in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR), Tissue Factor (TF) and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) are three biomarkers that exhibit enhanced expression in many types of cancers, and have been investigated as potential biomarkers for targeted strategies and prognostication.
Epidermal growth factor receptor overexpression in human cancer can be effectively targeted by drugs acting as specific inhibitors of the receptor, like erlotinib, gefitinib, cetuximab and panitumumab.
Recent reports suggested that essential directions for new lung cancer, breast carcinoma therapies, as well as the roomier realm of targeted cancer therapies were provided through targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).
The specific targeting of oncogenic mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a breakthrough in targeted cancer therapy and marks a drastic change in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide and, although targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors has dramatically improved the rates of response and survival in advanced EGFR-mutated adenocarcinoma, the overall outcome remains unsatisfactory.