The KAT6A-TFE3renal cell carcinoma demonstrated typical morphological features of TFE3/Xp11 renal cell carcinoma including papillae, eosinophilic cytoplasm with focal clearing and abundant psammoma bodies.
To broaden the spectrum of Xp11 neoplasms, we investigated a novel tumor exhibiting morphologies overlapping Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 rearrangement-associated RCC and the mesenchymal counterpart with melanocytic differentiation by immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and RNA sequencing, as well as literature review.
Among the 27 renal cell carcinomas with TFE3 strong positive immunostaining, 20 cases were diagnosed as Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma, and seven cases were diagnosed as clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (Xp11tRCC) is a subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) characterized by chromosomal rearrangement of the region harboring the transcription factor for immunoglobulin heavy-chain enhancer 3 (TFE3).
Two transcription factors in this family have been identified in two unusual types of renal cell carcinoma (RCC): Xp11 translocation RCC harbouring TFE3 gene fusions and t(6;11) RCC harbouring a MALAT1-TFEB gene fusion.
Notably, 7/9 (78%) renal cell carcinomas exhibiting subnuclear clearing and linear nuclear array (6 of which showed high World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology nucleolar grade) demonstrated TFE3 translocation, an association that was statistically significant when compared with renal cell carcinomas without MITF aberrations (P=0.009).
Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) with Xp11 translocation (Xp11 RCC) constitute a distinctive molecular subtype characterized by chromosomal translocations involving the Xp11.2 locus, resulting in gene fusions between the TFE3 transcription factor with a second gene (usually ASPSCR1, PRCC, NONO, or SFPQ).
These cases validate RBM10-TFE3 as a recurrent gene fusion in Xp11 translocation RCC, illustrate a source of false-negative TFE3 break-apart FISH, and highlight the complementary role of TFE3 IHC and TFE3 FISH.