This raises the question of the association of COL1A1p.(Arg312Cys) with arterial complications and the need for a gene panel including not only the usual genes tested in search of classical or vascular EDS but also COL1A1.
We identified a known <i>COL1A1</i> (encoding collagen type I α 1 chain) mutation (c.2010delT, p.Gly671Alafs*95) in all three patients (the proband, her brother, and her mother) in this family, but also a novel heterozygous <i>COL5A1</i> (encoding collagen type V α 1 chain) mutation (c.5335A>G, p.N1779D) in the region encoding the C-terminal propeptide domain in the proband and her mother, who both had the compound phenotype of OI and EDS.
Heterozygous mutations in the COL1A1 or COL1A2 gene encoding the alpha1 and alpha2 chain of type I collagen generally cause either osteogenesis imperfecta or the arthrochalasis form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS).
Mutations in the genes coding for collagen alpha1(V) chain (COL5A1), collagen alpha2(V) chain (COL5A2), tenascin-X (TNX), and collagen alpha1(I) chain (COL1A1) have been characterized in patients with classical EDS, thus confirming the suspected genetic heterogeneity.
Thus, in contrast to mutations in genes that encode the dominant protein of a tissue (e.g., COL1A1 and COL2A1), in which "null" mutations result in phenotypes milder than those caused by mutations that alter protein sequence, the phenotypes produced by these mutations in COL3A1 overlap with those of the vascular form of EDS.
We have used a number of restriction site dimorphisms, tightly linked to the structural genes of type I collagen (COL1A1 COL1A2) and type III collagen (COL3A1), to investigate the segregation of corresponding alleles in three pedigrees in which type II EDS was clearly inherited as a dominant trait.
We describe the phenotype of the largest series of vEDS patients with glutamic acid to lysine substitutions (Glu>Lys) in COL3A1, which were all previously considered to be variants of unknown significance.
The absence of bone fragility in our patients indicates that cardiac valvular EDS is also separated from patients with autosomal recessive osteogenesis imperfecta and variants in COL1A2, as well as from individuals with autosomal dominant osteogenesis imperfecta and severe cardiac valvular disease.