Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and IL-6 expression were robustly increased in the DH of mice with EAE manifesting pain, whereas these cytokines showed a modest increase or no change in mice with EAE in the absence of pain.
In this study, the effects of curcumin has been investigated on the expression levels of selected cytokine coding genes as well as the extent of demyelination in the corpus callosum of C57BL/6 experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS. Gene expression analyses revealed that treatment with curcumin could lead to a significant reduction in the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine coding genes including IL-6 (p = 0.001), IL-17 (p = 0.001), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (p = 0.008), and interferon (IFN)-γ (p = 0.033) as well as a significant increase in the expression level of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β (p = 0.006) as an anti-inflammatory cytokine.
In FABP7-knockout (KO) mice, the onset of EAE symptoms occurred earlier than in wild type (WT) mice, and mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-17 and TNF-α) were higher in FABP7-KO lumbar spinal cord than in WT lumbar spinal cord at early stage of EAE.
We also demonstrated that prophylactic oral administration of OLT1177 led to marked reduction (~2- to 3-fold) in the protein levels of IL-1β and IL-18, as well as, IL-6 and TNFα, in the spinal cord of EAE mice.
Furthermore, ferucarbotran treatment increased the number of CD3<sup>+</sup>, Iba-1<sup>+</sup>, IL-6<sup>+</sup>, Iba-1<sup>+</sup>TNF-α<sup>+</sup> and CD3<sup>+</sup>IFN-γ<sup>+</sup> cells in the spinal cord of EAE mice.
Finally, the impact of EAE immunization was studied on the pulmonary and brain mRNA expression of different genes of the endothelin pathway, interleukin-33 (IL-33), and monitoring of immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor-<i>α</i> (TNF-<i>α</i>).
The neuroprotective effects of exendin-4 against EAE were also associated with decreased mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-17, IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, all of which are usually upregulated in injured sites of the EAE spinal cord.
In this study, the following methods were used for investigating the effects of LA on long-term EAE: hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE) and electron microscopic examinations of pathological changes; Western blotting of β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) and myelin basic protein (MBP); Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as flow cytometry of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs).
The serum measures of myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO) as well as splenocytes-originated pro-inflammatory interleukin-17 (IL-17) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were significantly decreased in EAE rats treated by 17β-ED primed-MSCs compared to EAE rats that received untreated MScs.
This review will introduce and discuss current evidence of the role of IL-1<i>β</i> and TNF in the regulation of synaptic strength at both physiological and pathological levels, in particular speculating on their involvement in the synaptic plasticity changes observed in the EAE brain.
Treatment of EAE mice with GL from onset to the peak stage of disease resulted in marked attenuation of EAE severity, reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and demyelination, decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL-6, and transforming growth factor-beta 1, and increased IL-4 both in serum and spinal cord homogenate.
In vitro, after blocking the IL-33, the proliferation of primary astrocytes, the production of MCP-1/CCL2 and TNF-α by astrocytes, and the production of TNF-α by primary microglia stimulated by the homogenate of the peak stage of EAE were increased.
SR141716A significantly up-regulated the expression of toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4) and nuclear factor-kappaB/p65 (NF-κB/p65) on microglia/macrophages of EAE mice as well as levels of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) and chemokines (MCP-1, CX3CL1), accompanied by the shifts of cytokines from Th2 (IL-4, IL-10) to Th1 (IFN-γ)/Th17 (IL-17) in the spinal cords of EAE mice.
In the present study we show that macrophages/microglia of Nr4a1<sup>-/-</sup> mice, which exhibited earlier onset and more severe clinical EAE, were polarized to an enhanced type 1 (M1) phenotype and produced higher levels of IL-12 and TNF-α than wild type mice.
The mRNA and protein levels of interleukin-10 in the rat brain in EAE group were decreased notably (P<0.05), while those of interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α were increased significantly (P<0.05).
Moreover, monocyte-autonomous TNF is critical for the function of these cells, as <i>TNF</i> ablation in monocytes/macrophages, but not in microglia, delayed the onset of EAE in challenged animals and was associated with reduced acute spinal cord infiltration of Ly6C<sup>hi</sup> effector monocytes.