TonEBP (+/-) mice show reduced sickness responses, which include anorexia and hyperthermia, that are initially induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. TonEBP (+/-) mice also show lower levels of TNF-α-induced hypothalamic expression of POMC and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
In this study, we examined the possible effects of anti-Ly6G-mediated systemic neutrophil depletion and liposome-encapsulated clodronate (LEC)-mediated systemic macrophage depletion on the inflammatory signs (thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, oedema and fever) and measured the levels of various inflammation markers (tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-10, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α/CCL3) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in paw and spinal cord tissues in carrageenan (CG)-induced hindpaw inflammation model in rats.
The brains were removed and ipsilateral cortical tissue and hippocampus were dissected and subsequently assayed for interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Hyperthermia occurred during days 1-6 post-CCI in male rats, but only on the day of CCI in female rats, and minocycline prevented its occurrence in both sexes.
Furthermore, leukopenia, lymphocytopenia, differentiation of T-cells, and the secretion of cytokines associated with inflammation or apoptosis such as interferon alpha (IFN-α), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 were induced by the virulent CSFV infection, the differences reflected in onset and extent of the regulation.
To evaluate the intracranial inflammatory response in patients with acute-stage KD, we measured the levels of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-6 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) and pentraxin-3 (PTX3) in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with KD (<i>n</i> = 7) and compared the levels to those of the age- and sex-matched febrile control patients (bacterial meningitis [<i>n</i> = 5], enteroviral meningitis [<i>n</i> = 10], nonspecific viral illness without central nervous system involvement [<i>n</i> = 10]).
Additionally, both NB and SB exhibited remarkable anti-inflammatory effects to reduce the level of inflammatory factors including NO, TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages, and lower the high body temperature in rats with endotoxic fever induced by LPS.
Citral given by gavage caused no change in control euthermic rats (treated with saline) but blunted most of the assessed parameters related to the sickness syndrome [fever (hallmark of infection), plasma cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) release, and prostaglandin E<sub>2</sub> (PGE<sub>2</sub>) synthesis (both peripherally and hypothalamic)].
ThermomiRs such as miR-142-5p and miR-143 in turn target endogenous pyrogens including IL-6, IL6ST, TLR2, PGE2 and TNF to complete a negative feedback mechanism, which may be crucial to prevent pathological hyperthermia.
Although a group of patients exhibit episodic systemic inflammation (periodic fevers), these disorders are mediated by continuous overproduction and release of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1 and IL-6, and TNF and are best considered as autoinflammatory diseases rather than periodic fevers.
Serum Th1/Th2 cytokine levels, including tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and interferon, were quantitatively determined by cytometric bead array technology in 480 cases (230 children) of children with hemopathy in the bone marrow inhibition phase with signs of infection, such as fever, and without, to establish baseline and affected levels for comparison with healthy control children.