AZD1775 also selectively inhibited the proliferation of patient-derived primary cell lines from gliomas with naturally occurring ATRX mutations, indicating that the synthetic lethal relationship between WEE1 and ATRX could be exploited in a broader spectrum of human tumors.
Mutations in the critical chromatin modifier ATRX and mutations in CIC and FUBP1, which are potent regulators of cell growth, have been discovered in specific subtypes of gliomas, the most common type of primary malignant brain tumors.
The classification of gliomas has been restructured with the discovery of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1/2 mutations in the vast majority of lower grade infiltrating gliomas and secondary glioblastomas (GBM), with IDH-mutant astrocytomas further characterized by TP53 and ATRX mutations.
The results indicate immunohistochemical analysis including IDH1/2, ATRX, p53, and Ki-67 index is valuable for the classification of diffuse gliomas, which is useful for the evaluation of prognosis, especially Grade III gliomas and lower-grade gliomas (i.e., Grade II and III).
Our results showed ATRX-related regulatory functions of the combined profiles from DNA methylation and mRNA expression in astrocytic tumors, and delineated that loss of ATRX impacted biological behaviors of astrocytic tumor cells, providing important resources for future dissection of ATRX role in glioma.
p-Hsp27 is a novel biomarker of glioma and might have important clinical value for further classification of patients with wild-type IDH1 and normal ATRX expression, for evaluating prognosis and for guidance for adjuvant therapy.
Mutations of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and the α thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) genes have been the subject of numerous studies on the classification and prognosis of glioma.
We anticipate new treatments and clinical approaches will emerge for glioma and other cancer types as mechanistic and molecular studies on ATRX are only just beginning to reveal the many critical functions of this protein in cancer.