Specific single nucleotides polymorphisms (SNPs) rs4977756 (CDKN2A/B), rs6010620 (RTEL1), rs498872 (PHLDB1), rs2736100 (TERT), and rs4295627 (CCDC26) have been associated with glioma susceptibility and are potential risk biomarkers.
The Investigating and defining if glial tumors with CDKN2A/B and MTAP homozygous loss may be vulnerable to new forms of therapy, namely those affecting the methionine salvage pathway, was proven to be of importance.
Taken together with the facts that only one PXA preceded E-GBM among these lower-grade lesions, and that co-occurrence of BRAF V600E, TERT promoter mutations and CDKN2A/B homozygous deletions have been reported to be rare in conventional lower-grade diffuse gliomas, the diffuse glioma-like components may be distinct infiltrative components of E-GBM, reflecting intratumoral heterogeneity.
The median methylation level of MGMT in glioma samples was 64.65% (IQR, 54.87%-74.37%) compared to 38.30% (IQR, 34.13%-45.45%) in healthy controls, and all revealed significant differences including P16.
The pooled results showed that there was an obvious association of CDKN2A/B rs4977756 polymorphism with risk of glioma in all four comparison models (dominant model/AG + GG vs. AA: OR = 1.36, 95 %CI = 1.20-1.54, p < 0.01; heterozygote comparison/AG vs. AA: OR = 1.31, 95 %CI = 1.12-1.53, p < 0.01; homozygote comparison/GG versus AA: OR = 1.49, 95 %CI = 1.36-1.64, p < 0.01; additive model/G vs. A: OR = 1.23, 95 %CI = 1.18-1.28, p < 0.01, respectively).
These findings suggest that CDKN2A testing may provide further clinical aid in lower-grade glioma substratification beyond IDH mutation and 1p19q codeletion status, particularly in IDH/TP53 mutated astrocytomas.
Genome-wide association studies have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 7 loci influencing glioma risk: rs2736100 (TERT), rs11979158 and rs2252586 (EGFR), rs4295627 (CCDC26), rs4977756 (CDKN2A/CDKN2B), rs498872 (PHLDB1), and rs6010620 (RTEL1).
The genetic variants associated with the risk of glioma in the EGFR gene have also been associated with specific somatic aberrations, including loss at the CDKN2A/B locus and allele specific loss of EGFR in the tumors.
In analyses including glioma cases with a family history of brain tumours (n = 104) and control subjects free ofglioma at baseline, three of seven SNPs were associated with glioma risk: rs2736100 (5p15.33, TERT), rs4977756 (9p21.3, CDKN2A-CDKN2B) and rs6010620 (20q13.33, RTEL1).
Despite the dependency of primary gliomas on continued KRas signaling, a significant percentage of tumors progressed to a KRas-independent state in the absence of Ink4a/Arf expression, demonstrating that these tumor suppressors play a critical role in the suppression of glioma recurrence.
Three of the gene variants (rs4295627, a variant of CCDC26; rs4977756, a variant of CDKN2A and CDKN2B; and rs6010620, a variant of RTEL1) were statistically significantly associated with glioma risk in the present population.
Seven independent chromosomal loci have robustly been associated with glioma risk: 5p15.33 (rs2736100, TERT), 8q24.21 (rs4295627, CCDC26), 9p21.3 (rs4977756, CDKN2A-CDKN2B), 20q13.33 (rs6010620, RTEL1), and 11q23.3 (rs498872, PHLDB1), and two loci at 7p11.2 (rs11979158 and rs2252586, EGFR).
Two recent genome-wide association studies reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in (or near) TERT (5p15), CCDC26 (8q24), CDKN2A/B (9p21), PHLDB1 (11q23), and RTEL1 (20q13) are associated with infiltrating glioma.
Genome-wide association data have identified common genetic variants at 5p15.33 (rs2736100, TERT), 8q24.21 (rs4295627, CCDC26), 9p21.3 (rs4977756, CDKN2A-CDKN2B), 11q23.3 (rs498872, PHLDB1), and 20q13.33 (rs6010620, RTEL1) as determinants of glioma risk.
Genome-wide association studies have recently identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in five loci at 5p15.33 (rs2736100, TERT), 8q24.21 (rs4295627, CCDC26), 9p21.3 (rs4977756, CDKN2A/CDKN2B), 20q13.33 (rs6010620, RTEL1), and 11q23.3 (rs498872, PHLDB1) to be associated with glioma risk.