TNF-α stimulation further upregulated the expression of NF-κB1, STAT-6 in tandem with Ras-MEK signaling system in U87MG cells, which emphasized the possible involvement of these signaling hubs in the glioma microenvironment.
Both compounds exhibited selective cytotoxicity against human glioma stem cells (GSCs) and induced caspase-3 dependent extrinsic apoptosis by increasing the expression of interleukin 1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and the cleaved caspase-3, while damaged the unlimited proliferation and self-renewal capacity of GSCs.
Peripheral blood from 205 treatment-naïve patients with glioma (GBM = 145; non-GBM = 60) was obtained on the day of surgery to measure (i) circulating T-cells reacting to viral antigens and TAAs, in the presence or absence of cytokine conditioning with IL-2/IL-15/IL-21 or IL-2/IL-7, and (ii) serum cytokine levels (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17A).
IL13Rα2-CAR.CD28.ζ T cells proliferated, produced cytokines (IFNγ, TNF-α), and promoted a phenotypically pro-inflammatory glioma microenvironment by inducing a significant increase in the number of CD4<sup>+</sup> and CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells and CD8α<sup>+</sup> dendritic cells and a decrease in Ly6G<sup>+</sup> myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs).
Injection of IL-22 increased the severity of glioma <i>in vivo</i> and higher expression levels of IL-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were detected in the brain using ELISA following IL-22 injection.
Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, can stimulate glioma cell invasion and survival via binding to fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) and subsequent activation of the transcription factor NF-κB.
FAT10 expression is highly up-regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α in all cell types and tissues and it was also found to be up-regulated in many cancer types such as glioma, colorectal, liver or gastric cancer.
Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, can stimulate glioma cell invasion via binding to fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) and subsequent activation of the Rho guanosine triphosphatase family member Rac1.
While this work calls into question previous studies that have used the B-D13 antibody to assess IL13Rα2 expression, it also suggests that TNF may have significant effects on glioma biology by up-regulating VCAM-1.
To define novel pathways that regulate susceptibility to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in glioma, we have performed genome-wide expression profiling of microRNAs (miRs).
The combination effect was evaluated by the level of GFP and TNF expression in a human glioma cell line, and the mechanism of MMC effects on rAAV mediated gene expression was investigated by AAV transduction related signal molecules.
This ability of CK2-Is to sensitize glioma to TNFα-induced death via multiple mechanisms involving abrogation of NF-κB activation, reactivation of wild-type p53 function and SIRT1 inhibition warrants investigation.
Previous studies have shown that the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has significant apoptosis-inducing activity in some glioma cell lines, although many lines are either moderately or completely resistant, which has limited the therapeutic applicability of this agent.