Synergistic expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and bradykinin (BK) in peri-sensory neurons results in the production of prostanoids, which affects sensory neuronal activity and responsiveness and causes hyperalgesia.
In the present study, we evaluated RAc1 nano particle effects on hyperalgesia and liver hepcidin and serum IL-1β and TNF-α expression levels during acute and chronic phases of adjuvant-induced inflammation in male rats and compared its effects with Deferoxamine.
Selective astrocyte (α-aminoadipate) and microglia (minocycline) inhibitors were injected i.t. to determine the contribution of these cells to hyperalgesia and paw edema.The effects of i.t. treatments with glial and NFκB (PDTC) inhibitors on spinal glial activation, TNF-α, IL-1β, CX<sub>3</sub>CR1 and CX<sub>3</sub>CL1 mRNA expression, and NFκB activation were also evaluated.
The present findings indicate that the BDNF and IL-1ß induction within the dorsal horn may be linked to the development of hyperalgesia, and that opioid analgesics and probably inhibitors of glial cell activation can prevent sensitization in the pain pathway at spinal level.
To further explore the mechanisms of mangiferin actions, rats were injected with modulators of inflammation and nociception; mangiferin prevented hyperalgesia induced by IL-1β (P < 0.01), CINC-1 (P < 0.01), epinephrine (P < 0.01), 8-Br-cAMP (P < 0.01) or capsaicin (P < 0.01), but not that induced by PGE<sub>2</sub> or α,β-MeATP.
We investigated whether: (1) P2 × 7 receptor activation by its agonist (BzATP) induces articular hyperalgesia in the rat's knee joint via inflammatory mechanisms and (2) activation of P2 × 7 receptors by endogenous ATP contributes to the articular hyperalgesia induced by bradykinin, TNF-α, IL-1β, CINC-1, PGE<sub>2,</sub> and dopamine.
These results suggest that minocycline provides protection against neonatal systemic LPS exposure-induced enhanced pain sensitivity (allodynia and hyperalgesia), and that the protective effects may be associated with its ability to attenuate LPS-induced microglia activation, and the levels of IL-1β, COX-2, and PGE2 in the spinal cord of neonatal rats.
Intraoperative remifentanil infusion induced postoperative hyperalgesia, as evidenced by the significant decrease in PWMT and PWTL (p < 0.01), and the significant increase in oxidative stress and inflammation evidenced by up-regulations of malondialdehyde, 3-nitrotyrosine, interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α (p < 0.01) in spinal dorsal horn and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity (p < 0.01) in dorsal root ganglion, as well as a decrease in manganese superoxide -dismutase activity (p < 0.01) compared with control and -incision groups.
LPS-induced hyperalgesia was associated with a decrease in eNOS, nNOS, and iNOS protein expression and activity as well as an increase in expression of NF-κB p65, caspase-1 p20, caspase-11 p20, NLRP3, ASC, gp91<sup>phox</sup>, p47<sup>phox</sup>, and nitrotyrosine proteins in addition to elevated IL-1β levels.
Impairment in AMPK activation induced by compound C or sunitinib, two AMPK inhibitors, provoked hyperalgesia in mice (p<0.001) associated with marked NLRP3 inflammasome protein activation and increased serum levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (24.56±0.82 pg/ml) and IL-18 (23.83±1.882 pg/ml) compared with vehicle groups (IL-1β: 8.15±0.44; IL-18: 4.92±0.4).
Hyperalgesia induced by both PLA(2)s was blocked by the histamine and serotonin receptor antagonists promethazine and methysergide, respectively, by the bradykinin B(2) receptor antagonist HOE 140 and by antibodies to tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNFalpha) and interleukin 1 (IL-1).
These data suggest that IL-10 limits the inflammatory hyperalgesia evoked by carrageenin and bradykinin by two mechanisms: inhibition of cytokine production and inhibition of IL-1 beta evoked PGE2 production.