Synergistic expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and bradykinin (BK) in peri-sensory neurons results in the production of prostanoids, which affects sensory neuronal activity and responsiveness and causes hyperalgesia.
IS comprises an acidic combination of bradykinin, serotonin, histamine and prostaglandin PGE2 and was introduced to basic pain research as a tool to activate and sensitize peripheral nociceptors when studying pathological pain conditions associated with allodynia and hyperalgesia.
Inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin-E2 or bradykinin cause hyperalgesia by activating cellular kinases that phosphorylate TRPV1, a process that has recently been shown to rely on a scaffolding protein, AKAP79, to target the kinases to TRPV1.
In wild-type mice, activation of PKRs by the PKR agonist Bv8 caused hyperalgesia and sensitized to the actions of capsaicin. pkr1-null mice exhibited impaired responses to Bv8 but showed normal hyperalgesic responses to bradykinin and PGE2 (prostaglandin E2).
In addition, the ME of B. microstachya (3--300 mg kg(-1), i.p., 30 min earlier) inhibited, in a graded manner, the hyperalgesia induced by bradykinin (3.2 microg/paw), substance P (13.5 microg/paw), carrageenan (300 microg/paw), capsaicin (100 microg/paw) and adrenaline (100 ng/paw) in the rat paw, with mean ID50 values of 20.5, 17.9, 101.8, 54.2 and 99.7 mg kg(-1), respectively.
Given orally NPC 18884, but not HOE 140, caused graded inhibition of BK-induced nociception (mean ID50 value of 50 nmol/kg).In rats, NPC 18884 given i.p. prevented BK and carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia (mean ID50 values of 6 nmol/kg and 13 nmol/kg), without affecting the hyperalgesia induced by des-Arg9-bradykinin (DABK) or by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).NPC 18884 given i.p. inhibited the mouse paw oedema induced by tyrosine8-bradykinin or by carrageenan, but had no effect on DABK-induced oedema in mice pre-treated with Escherichia coli endotoxin, or that induced by PGE2.
The HE (3 to 100 mg kg(-1), p.o., 1 h) inhibited in a graded manner, the hyperalgesia induced by bradykinin (3 nmol/paw) or substance P (10 nmol/paw) in rat paw, with mean ED50 values of 54.5 and 53.7 mg kg(-1), respectively.
Hyperalgesia induced by prostaglandin E2 remained unaffected by FR173657.5.Blood pressure reflexes following i.p. instillation of bradykinin in anaesthetized rats were inhibited by FR173657 s.c. with an ID50 of 1.1 micromol kg(-1), while the peptidic B2 antagonist icatibant (Hoe-140; D-Arg0-[Hyp3, Thi5, D-Tic7, Oic8]-bradykinin) caused inhibition at significantly lower doses (ID50 8.5 nmol kg(-1) P < 0.001).Responses to hydrochloric acid i.p. remained unaffected by FR173657.6.
Post-treatment with S14080 dose-dependently antagonized the hyperalgesia induced by prostaglandin E2, bradykinin, dopamine and by the hyperalgesic cytokines reported to be released by carrageenin (tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 and interleukin-8).3.
These data suggest that IL-10 limits the inflammatory hyperalgesia evoked by carrageenin and bradykinin by two mechanisms: inhibition of cytokine production and inhibition of IL-1 beta evoked PGE2 production.