We report the correction of hyperglycemia of STZ induced diabetic mice using one intravenous systemic administration of a single stranded serotype 8 pseudotyped adeno-associated virus (ssAAV2/8) vector encoding the human proinsulin gene under a constitutive liver specific promoter.
In this report we present a family with permanent neonatal diabetes, heterozygous for a novel INS gene missense mutation, p.A24V, manifested with marked hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis, unstable glycemic control, requiring insulin therapy, rapid progression of long-term complications and accompanying physical pathological signs and brain lesions.
In every patient, fasting insulin, proinsulin, C-peptide and 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol concentrations were assayed as markers of insulin secretion, peripheral resistance to insulin, and acute hyperglycaemia.
These findings indicate that elevated proinsulin and proinsulin/insulin ratios are secondary to increased demands on beta-cell secretion induced by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance with no discernible influence of family history of diabetes.
We hope to emphasize instead the homogeneity of nephropathy risk in both IDDM and NIDDM and also the idea that a common genetic susceptibility exists for all types of diabetes and is conditional on cumulative exposure to hyperglycemia.
Analysis of blood glucose in diabetic nude mice with transplanted cells showed that proinsulin production by these cells was strongly suppressed by GCV treatment in vivo as reflected by the reversal to hyperglycemia.
Mutations in exons 10 and 11 of human glucokinase result in conformational variations in the active site of the structure contributing to poor substrate binding - explains hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients.
Donohue syndrome ([DS]; leprechaunism) describes a genetic autosomal recessive disorder that results from the presence of homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the insulin receptor gene (INSR; 19p13.3-p13.2).Donohue syndrome is associated with a fatal congenital form of dwarfism with features of intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, exaggerated hyperglycemia with hyperinsulinism and dysmorphic abnormalities.We present a case of DS owing to the rarity of this syndrome (1 case in every million births).
People with GCK-MODY have a defect in glucose sensing; hence, glucose homeostasis is maintained at a higher set point resulting in mild, asymptomatic fasting hyperglycemia (5.4-8.3 mmol/L, HbA1c range 5.8-7.6% [40-60 mmol/mol]), which is present from birth and shows slight deterioration with age.