If leptin and insulin sensitivities increase concurrently, the combined effect could be a decrease in fat mass, consistent with the fact that increasing insulin sensitivity is often associated with fat mass loss in trials.
Liver-specific AlbCre+Cc1<sup>fl/fl</sup> mutants exhibited impaired insulin clearance and hyperinsulinemia at 2 months, followed by hepatic insulin resistance (assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp analysis) and steatohepatitis at ~ 7 months of age, at which point visceral obesity and hyperphagia developed, in parallel to hyperleptinemia and blunted hypothalamic STAT3 phosphorylation in response to an intraperitoneal injection of leptin.
A constellation of loss of satiety and a reduction of the metabolic rate, thermogenesis, and physical activity as well as increased vagal tone and hyperinsulinism with insulin and leptin resistance results in rapid weight gain due to a decreased energy expenditure and increased energy storage in adipose cells.
Furthermore, hormones that affect energy homeostasis also affect sleep/wake states: the orexigenic hormone ghrelin promotes wakefulness, and the anorexigenic hormones leptin and insulin increase the duration of slow-wave sleep.
This finding together with the positive association of chemerin and leptin with markers of insulin resistance, suggests that these adipokines and more especially chemerin and leptin accompanied by their adipose tissue expression could contribute to the increased insulin resistance and low grade inflammation that characterizes GDM-obese women.
These results identify a novel molecular pathway by which leptin confers inhibitory action on insulin secretion, and impaired PP-1 inhibition by leptin may be involved in dysfunction of the adipoinsular axis during the development of hyperinsulinemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Further, similar hypothalamic leptin transgene expression abrogated chronic hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, the predisposing risk factors of the age and environmentally acquired diabetes type 2, and instituted euglycemia by independently activating relays that stimulate glucose metabolism and repress hyperinsulinemia and improve insulin sensitivity in the periphery.
Analyses of metabolic parameters in maternal venous and umbilical venous plasma revealed significantly increased insulin and leptin as well as slightly increased glucose and TNF-α values in the obese and obese-GDM groups.
In first-degree relatives normal glucose tolerant women, fasting hyperinsulinemia, independently of the presence of metabolic syndrome, is associated with elevated IL-6 and leptin levels, suggesting an increased cardiovascular risk.
Further, we document here the efficacy of leptin replenishment in vivo, especially by supplying it to the hypothalamus with the aid of gene therapy, in preventing the antecedent pathophysiological sequalae--hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia--in various animal models and clinical paradigms of diabetes type 1 and 2 with or without attendant obesity.
This study demonstrates that targeted POMC gene delivery in the hypothalamus suppresses food intake and weight gain and reduces visceral adiposity and hyperinsulinemia in leptin-resistant obese Zucker rats.