Unlike the defined role of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene in adult hypertension, ACE gene did not show direct influence on childhood blood pressure (BP), rather, seemed to be related to childhood growth with age-dependent characteristics.
5A5A and 5A6A genotypes of MMP-3 (odds ratio (OR) 1.5; P = 0.021), II and ID genotypes of ACE (OR 1.7; P = 0.006) along with traditional ischaemic heart disease risk factors such as smoking (OR 4.9; P = 0.001), hypertension (OR 2.0; P = 0.001), diabetes mellitus (OR 2.9; P = 0.001) and dyslipidaemia (OR 2.1; P = 0.001) increased the risk of STEMI.
We used this method to analyze a) a highly polymorphic pentanucleotide repeat (CCTTT)(n) locus within the 5'-putative promoter region of the human inducible nitric oxide synthase gene (iNOS5) which is associated with diabetic complications and infectious diseases; b) a bi-allelic 27 bp VNTR region within intron 4 of endothelial nitric oxide gene (eNOS27) which is associated with hypertension in type 2 diabetes patients with coronary heart disease and excess risk of advanced diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes patients and c) an insertion/deletion polymorphism within the gene encoding angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE/ID) which is associated with cardiovascular pathology and nitric oxide activity, and is in strong linkage disequilibrium with functional variants.
We examined the association between obesity and 13 angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphisms, including the presence (I) or absence (D) of an Alu element in intron 16 (I/D polymorphism), and performed haplotype analysis using data collected from participants of a community survey of hypertension among blacks living in Ibadan, Nigeria; Spanish Town, Jamaica; and Chicago, IL.
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system genes have been the most widely studied, with the angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D variant being typed in about one-half of all hypertension pharmacogenetic studies.