To examine this further we administered the SGLT2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin, to 5/6 (subtotally) nephrectomised rats, a model of progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) that like CKD in humans is characterised by single nephron hyperfiltration and intraglomerular hypertension and where angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are demonstrably beneficial.
Also, adjusted ORs in the presence of normolipidemia and the absence of history of hypertension for the risk of CAD in the either ACE(rs4646994) D allele or VGEF(rs2010963)-G alleles were 2.08 (p=0.004) and 1.75 (p=0.024), respectively.
In 131 (65 female) treated hypertensives (average blood pressure 144/82 mmHg and duration of hypertension 11.7 years), we measured peripheral and central arterial pressures, peripheral (AIx(P)) and central (AIx(C1), AIx(C2)) augmentation indices, pulse-wave velocity (PWV) and daily urinary sodium excretion, and conducted genetic studies of ACE D/I and CYP11B2 C-344T polymorphisms.
To explore the association between ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in patients with hypertension who have developed heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).
AGT, ACE, and AT 1 R genes have overall effects with susceptibility to hypertension, where the SNPs of ACE have a mainly hypertension-associated effect and show an interacting effect to SNPs of AGT and AT 1 R genes.
Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that age above 45 years, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking and male sex are important risk factors for hypertension and no significant influence of variants inACE and NOS3 genes on this risk was recognized.
In a stratified analysis, however, the ACE DD genotype was found to significantly accelerate the risk of developing CHD by hypercholesterolemia (hazard ratio [HR]=4.50, 95% confidence interval=2.02-10.04 for hypercholesterolemia with the DD genotype; HR=1.48, 95% CI=1.04-2.12 for hypercholesterolemia with the ID＋II genotype; P for interaction=0.01), even after adjusting for other confounding factors, whereas no such associations were observed for hypertension, diabetes or smoking.
The objective of this study is to investigate the association of the MTHFR 677 C>T and 1298A>C, ACE insertion-deletion (I/D) and ApoE genetic polymorphisms with hypertension and to further explore the epistasis interactions that are involved in these mechanisms.