Pituitary adenomas and activating mutations of the TSH receptor gene (Parma et al., 1993) cause hyperthyroidism and TSH beta gene defects (Hayashizaki et al., 1989) and inactivating mutations of the TSH receptor gene (Sunthornthepvarakul et al., 1995) cause hypothyroidism.
We found that loss of Vps34 in thyrocytes causes (i) disorganization of thyroid parenchyma, with abnormal thyrocyte and follicular shape and reduced PAS<sup>+</sup> colloidal spaces; (ii) severe noncompensated hypothyroidism with extremely low T4 levels (0.75 ± 0.62 μg/dL) and huge thyrotropin plasma levels (19,300 ± 10,500 mU/L); (iii) impaired <sup>125</sup>I organification at comparable uptake and frequent occurrence of follicles with luminal Tg but nondetectable T4-bearing Tg; (iv) intense signal in thyrocytes for the lysosomal membrane marker, LAMP-1, as well as Tg and the autophagy marker, p62, indicating defective lysosomal proteolysis; and (v) presence of macrophages in the colloidal space.
We collected information on thyroid-specific phenotypes (TSH, T3, T4, fT4, TgAb, TPOAb, thyroid volume) and other clinical phenotypes (age, body surface area, number of hypothyroidism symptoms, blood pressure) from 290 patients with HT without levothyroxine (LT4) therapy with the aim to test for correlations between thyroid-specific and clinical phenotypes.
Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also diagnosed because she had a diffuse goiter and a mild hypothyroidism (TSH 8.20 μU/mL, and FT4 0.80 ng/mL) with positive autoantibodies for thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin.
Nivolumab-induced immune thrombocytopenia and hypothyroidism were suspected based on the presence of platelet-associated IgG, an increased level of autoantibodies to thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase and an enlarged thyroid gland.
In this report, we use the change in thyroglobulin and thyroid antibody levels in patients on immune therapy who develop hypothyroidism to better understand its pathogenesis as well as examine the status of hypothyroidism in the long term.
The results of the present study suggested that specific Tg gene alleles or genotypes were correlated with AITD; specific Tg SNP haplotypes were associated with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and Hashimoto's disease, and the Tg SNP frequency distribution differed depending on the geographical location of the Han Chinese populations.