We compared the safety and immunogenicity of a novel IL-2-supplemented liposomal influenza vaccine (designated INFLUSOME-VAC) with that of a commercial subunit vaccine and a commercial split virion vaccine in young adults (mean age 28 years) in the winter of 1999-2000.
We studied CD8 T cell responses against HIV-1, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and influenza in 128 subjects and demonstrate that polyfunctional CD8 T cell responses, also including IL-2 production and Ag-specific proliferation, are predominantly driven by virus epitopes restricted by HLA-B alleles.
Influenza-specific memory CD8(+) T-cell response maintained a highly functional profile in terms of multitude of effector molecule expression (CD107a, IFN-γ, TNF-α, MIP-1β and IL-2) and showed high avidity even in the setting of SIV infection.
Frequencies of circulating T cells producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2, and percentages of T cells proliferating after stimulation with rotavirus (RV), tetanus toxoid, and influenza were evaluated in PBMC derived from healthy adults and children.
Animals vaccinated with the IL2 viral vector showed an increased hemagglutination inhibition antibody response and higher protective efficacy after challenge with a wild-type influenza B virus when compared to mice vaccinated with a control virus.
Among influenza patients, there were significant but weak correlations between CoQ10 levels and IL-2 (r = -.30, P = .04), TNF-alpha (r = -.35, P = .01) and VEGF (r = .38, P = .007), but no correlation with IL-6, IL-10, VCAM or influenza severity of illness score (all P > .05).
Cal09 showed impaired pH1N1 nasopharyngeal shedding (16 of 118 children [14%, 95% CI 8·0-21·1] with shedding at day 2 after administration of LAIV) compared with H3N2 (54 of 118 [46%, 36·6-55·2]; p<0·0001) and influenza B (95 of 118 [81%, 72·2-87·2]; p<0·0001), along with suboptimal serum antibody (seroconversion in six of 118 [5%, 1·9-10·7]) and T-cell responses (CD4+ interferon γ-positive and/or CD4+ interleukin 2-positive responses in 45 of 111 [41%, 31·3-50·3]).