Although our knowledge on the role of cellular lncRNAs for influenza virus replication and pathogenesis is still at its infancy, several lncRNAs have been described to influence the cell innate response to the virus by altering the histone modification at specific sites, by interaction with specific transcription factors or directly stimulating in cis the expression of specific IFN-induced genes.
Recently however, human IRF7 was shown to be essential for IFN-α/β- and IFN-λ-dependent protective immunity against primary influenza in vivo, as inferred from a patient with life-threatening influenza revealed to be IRF7-deficient by whole exome sequencing.
We show that influenza B virus induces IRF3 activation, leading to IFN gene expression after viral RNPs (vRNPs) are released into the cytosol and are recognized by RIG-I receptor, meaning that the incoming influenza B virus is already able to activate IFN gene expression.
However, neutrophil uptake of MRSA and <i>S. pneumoniae</i> was significantly reduced upon IFN-λ treatment during influenza superinfection <i>in vivo</i> Together, these data support the theory that IFN-λ decreases neutrophil motility and function in the influenza-infected lung, which increases the bacterial burden during superinfection.
However, the mRNA level of a single IFN-stimulated gene, MxA (myxovirus resistance A), the IFN-stimulated gene known to be critical in blocking influenza virus replication, was significantly lower in the tracheal lavages of untreated monkeys than in the oseltamivir-treated monkeys (p = 0.05).
The IFN response was efficiently stimulated in these cells following infection with other viruses; the differential IFN response we observe with influenza viruses is therefore not cell specific but is likely due to differences in the nature of the infecting virus particles and their subsequent replication.
IFN α receptor (IFNAR) knock-out (KO) mice exhibited increased mortality and morbidity with higher viral load after infection with influenza virus A/FM/1/47 (H1N1, a mouse-adapted strain) compared with wild-type (WT) mice, though the viruses were finally eliminated in both groups.
Influenza was associated with overexpression of 20 genes, including those encoding the cytokines tumor necrosis factor and IL-12; the kinases MEK, TBK-1, and STAT-1; the apoptosis proteins caspase-8 and caspase-10; the influenza double-stranded RNA receptor RIG-I and its downstream effector MAVS; and pyrin, an IFN-stimulated protein involved in influenza resistance.
<i>cpIFNA1</i> will enable us to perform a proof-of-concept experiment to verify that IFN-Alpha1 AS increases <i>cpIFNA1</i> mRNA levels, resulting in inhibition of influenza virus proliferation <i>in vivo</i>.
Levels of virus along with IFN-β and IFN-λ and IFN-stimulated gene expression (tracked by 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 and myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1 mRNA) were determined up to 72 hours postinoculation.