Influenza was associated with overexpression of 20 genes, including those encoding the cytokines tumor necrosis factor and IL-12; the kinases MEK, TBK-1, and STAT-1; the apoptosis proteins caspase-8 and caspase-10; the influenza double-stranded RNA receptor RIG-I and its downstream effector MAVS; and pyrin, an IFN-stimulated protein involved in influenza resistance.
Finally, human MX1 (also known as MXA), a closely related protein that has long been recognized as a broadly acting inhibitor of RNA and DNA viruses, including the orthomyxovirus influenza A virus, does not affect HIV-1, whereas MX2 is ineffective against influenza virus.
RIG-I is an innate immune receptor that detects and responds to infection by deadly RNA viruses such as influenza, and Hepatitis C. In the cytoplasm, RIG-I is faced with a difficult challenge: it must sensitively detect viral RNA while ignoring the abundance of host RNA.
We show here, in the context of an influenza virus infection of lung epithelial cells, that AgNPs down-regulated influenza induced CCL-5 and -IFN-β release (two cytokines important in antiviral immunity) through RIG-I inhibition, while enhancing IL-8 production, a cytokine important for mobilizing host antibacterial responses.
LEP and DPEP have certain protective effects on the influenza virus-infected mice, which may be associated with their abilities of effectively alleviating lung injury, improving the immunologic function of infected mice and adjusting the host's TLRs and RIG-1 pathways.
These findings show that CSE suppresses antiviral and innate immune responses in influenza virus-infected human lungs through oxidative inhibition of viral-mediated induction of the pattern recognition receptor RIG-I.
MxA protein confers resistance to influenza viruses, and we have previously shown that MxA protein is strongly expressed in lesional anagen hair bulbs from patients with AA but not in normal follicles.
In fact, activation of pathogen sensors induces the expression of CSR32/EGOT RIG-I and the RNA-activated kinase PKR sense HCV RNA, activate NF-κB and upregulate EGOT EGOT is increased in the liver of patients infected with HCV and after infection with influenza or Semliki Forest virus (SFV).
These results demonstrate for the first time that uncontrolled influenza A virus replication actively suppresses MxA gene expression and emphasize the critical role of innate immunity in controlling influenza virus replication in vivo.
In conclusion, our results indicate that influenza NS1 protein targets TRIM25 and Riplet ubiquitin E3 ligases in a species-specific manner for the inhibition of RIG-I ubiquitination and antiviral IFN production.
IFITM3 was sequenced in patients and parents were genotyped for specific variants for family-based association testing. rs12252 was genotyped in 54 African-American pediatric outpatients with influenza (FLU09), included in the population-based comparisons with 1000 genomes.