Natural Killer (NK) cell-mediated early innate defense responses to influenza infection include the killing of infected epithelial cells and generation of anti-viral cytokines including interferon gamma (IFN-γ).
The cross-reactivity of influenza B virus-specific polyclonal CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) populations obtained from HLA-typed healthy study subjects, with intra-lineage drift variants and viruses of the opposing lineage, was determined by assessing their in vitro IFN-γ response and lytic activity.
Three days post infection (dpi), Δ(9)-THC broadly decreased expression levels of mRNA induced by the innate immune response to influenza, suppressed the percentage of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-producing CD4(+) and interleukin-17-producing NK1.1(+) cells, and reduced the influx of antigen-presenting cells (APC), including inflammatory myeloid cells and monocytes/macrophages, into the lung in a CB(1)- and/or CB(2)-dependent manner.
We have characterized peptide-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes directly ex vivo from peripheral blood in humans with past exposure to influenza virus, using single cell interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) release as a measure of effector function.
In this study, the efficacy of the antiviral drug Anaferon for children (released-active form of antibodies to interferon-gamma) was tested in a dose-dependent manner (at doses of 0.13, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 ml/mouse/day) in a murine model of acute pneumonia induced by influenza virus pandemic strain A/California/07/09 (H1N1).
In A549 cells, the extract (30 µg/mL) significantly inhibited influenza virus induced monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and interferon-γ induced protein 10 kD (IP-10), but dramatically increased interleukin-6 (IL-6).
We find that coculture of human PBMCs with inactivated whole influenza virus (A/Victoria/361/2011) in the presence of very low concentrations of IL-15 results in increased production of myeloid cell-derived cytokines, including IL-12, IFN-α2, GM-CSF, and IL-1β, and an increased frequency of polyfunctional NK cells (defined by the expression of two or more of CD107a, IFN-γ, and CD25).
In this study, we demonstrate the synergistic stimulation of CXCL10 mRNA and protein, a key chemokine responsible for the early immune response to viral infection, following treatment of airway epithelial cells with IFN γ and influenza virus.
Cal09 showed impaired pH1N1 nasopharyngeal shedding (16 of 118 children [14%, 95% CI 8·0-21·1] with shedding at day 2 after administration of LAIV) compared with H3N2 (54 of 118 [46%, 36·6-55·2]; p<0·0001) and influenza B (95 of 118 [81%, 72·2-87·2]; p<0·0001), along with suboptimal serum antibody (seroconversion in six of 118 [5%, 1·9-10·7]) and T-cell responses (CD4+ interferon γ-positive and/or CD4+ interleukin 2-positive responses in 45 of 111 [41%, 31·3-50·3]).
We observed that viral vectored vaccines expressing both stalk-targeting, chimeric HA constructs, and the NP+M1 fusion protein, in a prime-boost regimen resulted in the production of antibodies toward group 2 HAs, the HA stalk, NP and M1, as well as in induction of influenza virus-specific-IFNγ responses.
Influenza-specific memory CD8(+) T-cell response maintained a highly functional profile in terms of multitude of effector molecule expression (CD107a, IFN-γ, TNF-α, MIP-1β and IL-2) and showed high avidity even in the setting of SIV infection.
Influenza viral HA strongly decreased cellular sensitivity to type II IFNs, as it suppressed the activation of STAT1 and the induction of IFN-γ-stimulated genes in response to exogenously supplied recombinant IFN-γ.