The recombinant CaIFN-λ (rCaIFN-λ) displayed potent antiviral activity on both homologous and heterologous animal cells in terms of inhibiting the replication of the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), canine parvovirus, and influenza virus A/WSN/33 (H1N1), respectively.
From the screen, 17 HPKs (NPR2, MAP3K1, DYRK3, EPHA6, TPK1, PDK2, EXOSC10, NEK8, PLK4, SGK3, NEK3, PANK4, ITPKB, CDC2L5 (CDK13), CALM2, PKN3, and HK2) were validated as essential for A/WSN/33 influenza virus replication, and 6 HPKs (CDK13, HK2, NEK8, PANK4, PLK4 and SGK3) were identified as vital for both A/WSN/33 and A/New Caledonia/20/99 influenza virus replication.
In comparison with human seasonal influenza H1N1 (A/HK/54/98) and mouse adapted influenza H1N1 (A/WSN/33) viruses, the highly pathogenic influenza H5N1 virus (A/HK/483/97) was a more potent inducer of the chemokine, CXCL 10 (IP-10), while there was not a clear differential TNF-α protein expression pattern.
To determine whether the cellular miRNAs play an important role in H1N1 influenza A viral infections, 3' untranslated region (UTR) reporter analysis was used to identify putative miRNA targets in the influenza virus genome, and virus proliferation analysis was used to detect the effect of the screened miRNAs on the replication of H1N1 influenza A virus (A/WSN/33) in MDCK cells.
Since dendritic cells may play a key role in defense against influenza virus infection, we examined the effects of recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) proteins derived from mouse-adapted H1N1 (A/WSN/1933), swine-origin 2009 pandemic H1N1 (A/Texas/05/2009), and highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (A/Thailand/KAN-1/2004) viruses on mouse myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs).
To understand viral genetic determinants responsible for this hyperinduction of cytokines, we constructed recombinant viruses containing different combinations of genes from high-cytokine (A/Vietnam/1203/04) and low-cytokine (A/WSN/33) phenotype H1N1 viruses and tested their cytokine-inducing phenotype in human macrophages.
Viruses containing NS1 sequences from the 1918 H1N1 and H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses demonstrated increased virulence in infected mice compared with wt A/WSN/33 virus, as characterized by rapid loss of body weight, decreased survival time, and decreased mean lethal dose.
The associations between influenza and psychiatric disturbances in past epidemics are here commented upon, and the potentials of influenza to cause nervous system dysfunction in experimental infections with a mouse-neuroadapted WSN/33 strain of the virus are reviewed.
Here we demonstrate, through the use of dominant-negative Rab5 and Rab7, that influenza virus (Influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) and A/X-31 (H3N2)) requires both early and late endosomes for entry and subsequent infection in HeLa cells.
However, immunization of old and young mice with plasmids expressing the HA gene induced comparable clearance of influenza virus from the lungs and the same level of protection from a lethal challenge with live WSNinfluenza virus.
In this study, panels of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) produced against the matrix proteins (M1) of A/WSN and A/PR/8/34 and the nucleoprotein (NP) of A/WSN were assessed for their value in identifying the hosts of origin of the M1 and NP genes in influenza virus isolates and in mapping the proteins' functional domains.