Higher frequencies of CD11b+ inflammatory monocytes (CD11b(hi), >48.4%) compared with low frequencies of CD11b+ inflammatory monocytes (<15.8%) was associated with higher prevaccination frequencies of total and inflammatory monocytes and higher CCR2 MFI, higher plasma sTNFR1 and CXCL-10 with higher lipopolysaccharide stimulated expression of TNFα and IL-6, concomitant with lower postvaccination influenza antibody titers.
In addition, it can significantly attenuate expression of the pro-inflammatory molecules IL-6, MIP-1β, MCP-1, and IP-10 induced by human influenza A virus (H1N1) and similarly downregulate expression of cytokines and chemokines induced by avian influenza A virus (H9N2).
In this study, we demonstrate the synergistic stimulation of CXCL10 mRNA and protein, a key chemokine responsible for the early immune response to viral infection, following treatment of airway epithelial cells with IFN γ and influenza virus.
In A549 cells, the extract (30 µg/mL) significantly inhibited influenza virus induced monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and interferon-γ induced protein 10 kD (IP-10), but dramatically increased interleukin-6 (IL-6).
Only 9% of subjects who received LAIV seroconverted, while 33% of patients developed at least a 2-fold increase in influenza virus-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies in nasal wash. LAIV induced a localized inflammation, as suggested by increased expression of interferon-response genes in mucosal RNA and increased granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and IP-10 in nasal wash. Interestingly, patients who seroconverted had significantly lower serum levels of G-CSF before vaccination.
In comparison with human seasonal influenza H1N1 (A/HK/54/98) and mouse adapted influenza H1N1 (A/WSN/33) viruses, the highly pathogenic influenza H5N1 virus (A/HK/483/97) was a more potent inducer of the chemokine, CXCL 10 (IP-10), while there was not a clear differential TNF-α protein expression pattern.
Furthermore, NEC/mono-DC co-cultures using NECs from smokers exhibited suppressed concentrations of T-cell/natural killer cell chemokine interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) after infection with influenza, indicating that NECs from smokers may skew early influenza-induced Th1 responses.