We therefore determined (i) whether heavy alcohol consumption (35% caloric intake) influences bone in sexually mature ovx rats with established cancellous osteopenia and (ii) whether ICI 182,780 (ICI), a potent estrogen receptor signaling antagonist, alters the skeletal response to alcohol.
In multivariable analysis, only higher body mass index (OR 0.6 per 5kg/m<sup>2</sup>, 95% CI: 0.4-0.7) and nonwhite race compared to white (OR 0.5, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9) were protective for bone loss while older age (OR 1.5 per 10years, 95% CI: 1.1-2.1) and selective estrogen receptor modulator use (3.1, 95% CI: 1.2-10.1) were associated with increased odds of bone loss.
Previous studies have revealed that ICA exerted a protective effect against bone loss and increased bone regeneration; however, the association between ICA and estrogen receptor (ER) signaling remains unclear.
These results indicate that the PvuII and the XbaI polymorphisms of ESR1 gene are associated with bone mineral density in premenopausal women with GD and may help to estimate the risk of bone loss particularly at lumbar spine.
Estrogen receptor alpha CA dinucleotide repeat polymorphism is associated with rate of bone loss in perimenopausal women and bone mineral density and risk of osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women.
There was a significant association between a common haplotype "px", defined by the PvuII and XbaI restriction fragment length polymorphisms within intron 1 of the ESR1 gene, and femoral neck bone loss in postmenopausal women who had not received hormone replacement therapy (n = 945; p = 0.009).
The genes coding for estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) and androgen receptors (AR) are potential candidates for the regulation of bone mass and turnover, which may contribute to both the achievement of peak bone mass and bone loss after completion of growth.
We have previously reported that PvuII polymorphism of the estrogen receptor-alpha (ER alpha) gene is associated with bone loss rate, fracture risk, and response to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in early postmenopausal Finnish women.
We conclude that subjects with the ER PvuII genotypes PP and Pp may have a greater risk of relatively fast bone loss after menopause than those with the pp genotype and that they may preferentially derive benefit from HRT.