Microglia abnormalities may contribute to epileptogenesis in the context of neuronal involvement in TSC mouse models, but selective Tsc1 gene inactivation in microglia alone may not be sufficient to cause epilepsy, suggesting that microglia have more supportive roles in the pathogenesis of seizures in TSC.
For the TSC group, though a small one, the variations in the MLT release amplitudes seem to be independent of the total number of seizures; however, the MLT release shift appears to depend on the number of seizures.
Evidence from experimental research shows that encephalopathy in TSC might have a genetic cause, and mTOR activation caused by TSC gene mutation can be directly responsible for the early appearance of seizures and encephalopathy.
Here we report that tuberless heterozygote Tsc1(+/-) mice show functional upregulation of cortical GluN2C-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in an mTOR-dependent manner and exhibit recurrent, unprovoked seizures during early postnatal life (<P19).
Here we demonstrate that autophagy is suppressed in brain tissues of forebrain-specific conditional TSC1 and phosphatase and tensin homlog knock-out mice, both of which display aberrant mTOR activation and seizures.
As a group, patients with a TSC2 mutation had earlier age at seizure onset, lower cognition index, more tubers, and a greater TBP than those with a TSC1 mutation, but the ranges overlapped considerably.
In families with mutations, all individuals carrying a mutation met formal diagnostic criteria for TSC, apart from a 3-year-old girl who had inherited a deletion mutation, and who had no seizures, normal intelligence, normal abdominal ultrasound, and hypomelanotic macules only on physical exam.
The mechanism underlying the association of autism and TSC is as yet unclear but clinical features and neuroimaging investigations suggest that an abnormal TSC gene may directly influence the development of autism rather than it being a secondary effect of seizures or MR.