Artesunate markedly ameliorated aspirin induced gastric injury in rats by targeting oxidative stress and COX-2 dependent as well as COX-2 independent proinflammatory signaling pathways and could have a therapeutic potential in gastric ulcer disease.
Current study was designed to understand the gastric ulcer healing mechanism of rhamnogalacturonan-I type pectic polysaccharide of black cumin (BCPP) utilizing acetic acid induced gastric ulcers in rats.BCPP fed groups at 200mg/kg b.w. for 10days showed up to 85% healing of gastric ulcers with modulation of key molecular events involved in ulcer healing process such as increase in gastric mucin content, cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and prostaglandin E<sub>2</sub> (PGE<sub>2</sub>).
Recent studies suggest that cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors may enhance the toxic effects of anticancer drugs on tumor cells, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but its long-term use can cause side effects such as stomach ulcers and myocardial infarction.
These results confirmed the importance of COX-2/PGE2 in the healing mechanism of gastric ulcers and further suggested that the healing-promoting action of PGE2 is mediated by the activation of EP4 receptors and is associated with VEGF expression.
In this study, Wistar rats with gastric ulcers produced by serosal application of acetic acid (ulcer area 28 mm(2)) received daily treatment either with: (1) vehicle (saline); (2) NS-398 (10 mg/kg-d i.g.) and Vioxx (5 mg/kg-d i.g.), both, highly specific COX-2 inhibitors; (3) meloxicam (5 mg/kg-d i.g.), a preferential inhibitor of COX-2; (4) resveratrol (10 mg/kg-d i.g.), a specific COX-1 inhibitor; (5) indomethacin (5 mg/kg-d i.g); and (6) aspirin (ASA; 50 mg/kg-d i.g.), non-selective inhibitors of both COX-1 and COX-2.
Most were reported to be free of adverse gastrointestinal effects, but it should be noted that in the healing process of gastric ulcers and in sodium-restricted states, adverse effects of selective COX-2 inhibitors could be expected.
In the following article, the phenotypes of the two Ptgs (genes coding for COX-1 and COX-2) knockouts are summarized, and recent studies to investigate the effects of COX deficiency on cancer susceptibility, inflammatory response, gastric ulceration, and female reproductive processes are discussed.
Shh (r = 0.8, P < 0.001) and IL1β (r = 0.7, P < 0.005) expression was each positively correlated with the speed of gastric ulcer healing, but multivariate analysis showed that Shh expression was the only significant parameter (P = 0.045).