We describe a significant proportion of individual TS females having high levels of vWF, factor VIII, fibrinogen and CRP (15-40%) and an increased frequency of the Leiden mutation, with important associations with CIMT and blood pressure, suggesting that a subset of TS may have an unfavourable haemostatic balance, which may contribute to the increased risk of premature ischaemic heart disease and possibly increase the risk of deep venous and portal vein thrombosis.
Multivariate analyses indicated that the strongest associations with IHD and MI were due to the combined effect of the VEGFA-2578 A allele and smoking (OR 3.52 and 7.11, respectively), independent of risk factors such as age, sex, diabetes, C-reactive protein, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension.
We hypothesized that the CYP2C9(*)2 (rs.1799853) and CYP2C9(*)3 (rs.1057910) polymorphisms with decreased enzyme activity affect risk of subclinical atherosclerosis (reduced ankle brachial index and increased C-reactive protein), ischemic vascular diseases (ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, ischemic cerebrovascular disease and ischemic stroke) and death after an ischemic heart disease diagnosis.
Genotype combinations of the four CRP polymorphisms were associated with an increase in CRP levels of up to 64%, resulting in a theoretically predicted increased risk of up to 32% for ischemic heart disease and up to 25% for ischemic cerebrovascular disease.
After multivariate regression adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and family history of early-onset ischemic heart disease, physical fitness remained inversely associated with CRP level in boys (beta = -0.02; standard error = 0.01).
Because of the importance of the CRP gene product in inflammation and its recent association with ischemic heart disease syndromes, this polymorphism may be useful in the association studies of atherosclerosis and its related phenotypes.
Patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and previous MI showed a difference in the distribution of genotype G8002A for endothelin-1: allele G 0.718 and A 0.282 vs those without MI: allele G 0.882 and A 0.118, (p<0.05).