Given these data establishing the potency of cyclin D1-mediated repression, we evaluated the ability of cyclin D1 to inhibit tumor-derived AR alleles and polymorphisms associated with tumor progression and increased prostate cancer risk.
Recent evidence indicates that some mutations in p53 arise as the cancer progresses from a benign tumor to a metastatic tumor and that these mutations in p53 actively contribute to the process of cancer progression.
The observation of TERT promotor and BRAF mutations in sporadic MPNSTs and the absence of TERT promotor and rarity of BRAF mutations in NF1 related tumors may imply an alternative genetic route of tumor progression in both patient groups.
Previous studies indicate that some tumors express alternatively or aberrantly spliced Mdm2 variants that are unable to bind p53, but whether these actively contribute to carcinogenesis or are a byproduct of cancer progression has been unclear.
These results suggest that (i) significant differences in the frequency of p53 mutations are present among subtypes of neoplasms derived from the same tissue; (ii) p53 may play a role in tumor progression in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia; (iii) the presence of both p53 loss/inactivation and c-myc oncogene activation may be important in the pathogenesis of Burkitt lymphoma and its leukemic form L3-type B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
These findings suggest that wt p53 protein has a function in maintaining genomic stability after X-ray irradiation through the G1 checkpoint and loss of p53 function(s) may lead to tumor progression in multi-step tumorigenesis.
Overexpression of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (Met/HGF receptor), a transmembrane tyrosine kinase encoded by the met proto-oncogene, has been associated with tumor progression in different human carcinomas.
We conclude that p53 protein overexpression is a common finding in some entities of T- and T/NK-cell lymphomas, whereas a p53 gene mutation is a rare, sporadic, and rather late event associated with tumor progression in some instances.
The transformed phenotype of IOE(CMYC) cells was further enhanced in concert with KRAS(G12V)/BRAF(V600E) expression, as in vitro analyses indicated that IOE(CMYC) cells had undergone morphological and phenotypic changes characteristic of neoplastic progression.
Mutation and deletion of the p53 tumor suppressor gene are arguably the most prevalent among the multiple genetic alterations found in human bladder cancer, but these p53 defects are primarily associated with the advanced diseases, and their roles in bladder tumor initiation and in synergizing with oncogenes in tumor progression have yet to be defined.
Notably, TP53 mutation, which has been used as a marker of tumor progression in many human cancers, was less significant in associating with progression in this study (P = 0.04) than was p16 or pRb alteration (P = 0.001).
Our results yield two implications: that p53 alterations have a crucial and early role in gastric carcinogenesis of intestinal type, likely acting at the transition step between metaplasia and dysplasia; and that the alterations are mainly associated with tumor progression in cancer of diffuse type.
The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that altered patterns of expression of the protein product(s) of the mutated p53 tumor suppressor gene are associated with tumor progression in patients with T1 bladder cancer.
The hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1A) gene has been suggested to play a critical role in cancer progression, and the relationship between HIF1A rs11549465 polymorphism and risk of prostate cancer has been investigated in previous studies.