We show here, in the MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion) cell model of parkinsonism, a time- and dose-dependent increase in the hyperphosphorylation of Tau at pSer396/404 (PHF-1-reactive Tau, p-Tau), concomitant with increased accumulation of alpha-Syn, upon treatment of cells with the neurotoxin.
The identification of novel alpha-synuclein-immunoreactive bands in these various forms of parkinsonism may open new research avenues for exploring the relationship between abnormal protein deposition in the brain and one or more neurodegenerative disorders, including the Contursi form of familial parkinsonism.
NACP/alpha-synuclein and tau constitute two distinctive subsets of filaments in the same neuronal inclusions in brains from a family of parkinsonism and dementia with Lewy bodies: double-immunolabeling fluorescence and electron microscopic studies.
The patients carrying the SNCA triplication developed early-onset parkinsonism combined with depression, behavior disturbances, sleep disorders, and cognitive decline; marked autonomic dysfunctions were not observed.
Parkinsonism-linked mutations in alanine and glutamic acid residues of the pre-synaptic protein α-Synuclein (α-Syn) affect specific tertiary interactions essential for stability of the native state and make it prone to more aggregation.
The aggregation of NFTs, the abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, and the interaction between tau and alpha-synuclein may all contribute to the cell death and poor axonal transport observed in PD and Parkinsonism.
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutation is the most common cause of genetic-related parkinsonism and is usually associated with Lewy body pathology; however, tau, α-synuclein, and ubiquitin pathologies have also been reported.
However, MnCl(2) resulted in a significantly stronger decreased viability of cells overexpressing alpha-synuclein after 72 h. These findings suggest that manganese may co-operate with alpha-synuclein in triggering neuronal cell death such as seen in manganese parkinsonism.
The fact that Lewy bodies stain strongly with antibodies to asynuclein and that mutations in the alpha-synuclein gene lead to syndromes in which parkinsonism and dementia occur gives us important clues regarding the biologic processes leading to disease.
Here, we investigated the kinase involved and show that the Tau-specific kinase, glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta), is robustly activated in various MPP(+)/MPTP models of Parkinsonism (SH-SY5Y cotransfected cells, mesencephalic neurons, transgenic mice overexpressing alpha-Syn, and postmortem striatum of PD patients).