Several kinases have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), most notably leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), as LRRK2 mutations are the most common genetic cause of a late-onset parkinsonism that is clinically indistinguishable from sporadic PD.
We review the literature of genetic PD autopsies from cases with molecularly confirmed PD or parkinsonism and summarize main findings on SNCA (n = 25), Parkin (n = 20, 17 bi-allelic and 3 heterozygotes), PINK1 (n = 5, 1 bi-allelic and 4 heterozygotes), DJ-1 (n = 1), LRRK2 (n = 55), GBA (n = 10 Gaucher disease patients with parkinsonism), DNAJC13, GCH1, ATP13A2, PLA2G6 (n = 8 patients, 2 with PD), MPAN (n = 2), FBXO7, RAB39B, and ATXN2 (SCA2), as well as on 22q deletion syndrome (n = 3).
The present findings support the notion that reduced/suppressed LRRK2 expression might delay or prevent motor symptoms and/or frank Parkinsonism in individuals at risk to suffer autosomal dominant Parkinsonism (AD-P) by blocking OS-induced neurodegenerative processes in the DAergic neurons.
Our findings in a representative series of index cases from families with ADPD emphasize the important contribution of LRRK2G2019S and GBA (L444P and N370S) mutations to parkinsonism in Brazilian families.
The present study also establishes that G2019S mutation leads to a reduction in lysosomal pH and increased expression of the lysosomal ATPase ATP13A2, a gene linked to a parkinsonian syndrome (Kufor-Rakeb syndrome), in brain samples from mouse and human LRRK2G2019S carriers.
It is also clear that LRRK2 interacts, either physically or genetically, with several other important proteins implicated in PD, suggesting that LRRK2 may be a central player in the pathways that underlie parkinsonism.
Low doses of paraquat and polyphenols prolong life span and locomotor activity in knock-down parkin Drosophila melanogaster exposed to oxidative stress stimuli: implication in autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism.
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutation is the most common cause of genetic-related parkinsonism and is usually associated with Lewy body pathology; however, tau, α-synuclein, and ubiquitin pathologies have also been reported.