Genetic atypical Parkinson's disease (PD) describes monogenic forms of PD that resemble idiopathic PD but feature prominent atypical clinical signs and symptoms and can be sub-grouped into i) atypical monogenic forms caused by mutations in the ATP13A2, DNAJC6, FBXO7, SYNJ1, VPS13C, and DCTN genes; ii) monogenic PD more closely resembling idiopathic PD, but associated with atypical features in at least a subset of cases (SNCA-, LRRK2-, VPS35-, Parkin-, PINK1-, and DJ-1-linked PD; iii) carriers of mutations in genes that are usually associated with other movement disorders but may present with parkinsonism, such as dopa-responsive dystonia.
We review the literature of genetic PD autopsies from cases with molecularly confirmed PD or parkinsonism and summarize main findings on SNCA (n = 25), Parkin (n = 20, 17 bi-allelic and 3 heterozygotes), PINK1 (n = 5, 1 bi-allelic and 4 heterozygotes), DJ-1 (n = 1), LRRK2 (n = 55), GBA (n = 10 Gaucher disease patients with parkinsonism), DNAJC13, GCH1, ATP13A2, PLA2G6 (n = 8 patients, 2 with PD), MPAN (n = 2), FBXO7, RAB39B, and ATXN2 (SCA2), as well as on 22q deletion syndrome (n = 3).
Other entities entailing dystonia-parkinsonism include dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome (SLC63 mutations); dopa-responsive dystonias; young-onset parkinsonism (PARKIN, PINK1 and DJ-1 mutations); PRKRA mutations; and X-linked TAF1 mutations, which rarely can also manifest in women.
Mutations in the PARK2 and PARK6 genes, coding for the cytosolic E3 ubiquitin protein ligase Parkin and the mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase PINK1 [phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1], lead to clinically similar early-onset Parkinsonian syndromes.
The foot dystonia and gait disorders seen at disease onset in affected members of our family, which were accompanied by parkinsonism had a similar clinical presentation to what has been described in previous reports of PINK1 mutation carriers.
PINK1 and Parkin, the products of two genes responsible for autosomal recessive Parkinsonian syndromes with early onset, act as a quality control system on the outer mitochondrial membrane to preserve mitochondrial integrity.