Parkinsonism-linked mutations in alanine and glutamic acid residues of the pre-synaptic protein α-Synuclein (α-Syn) affect specific tertiary interactions essential for stability of the native state and make it prone to more aggregation.
We used a novel real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay to detect α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregates in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 118 patients with parkinsonism of uncertain clinical etiology and 52 controls.
PD is characterized by intraneuronal accumulation of abnormal α-synuclein in brainstem while neurodegenerative parkinsonisms might be associated with accumulation of either α-synuclein, as in the case of Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) or tau, as in the case of Corticobasal Degeneration (CBD) and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP), in other disease-specific brain regions.
Ultrasensitive Detection of Aggregated α-Synuclein in Glial Cells, Human Cerebrospinal Fluid, and Brain Tissue Using the RT-QuIC Assay: New High-Throughput Neuroimmune Biomarker Assay for Parkinsonian Disorders.
The aggregation of NFTs, the abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, and the interaction between tau and alpha-synuclein may all contribute to the cell death and poor axonal transport observed in PD and Parkinsonism.
We used two different procedures, first, the adoptive transfer of splenocytes from αSyn/Grp94-immunized mice to recipient animals, and second, direct immunization with αSyn/Grp94, to study the effects in a chronic mouse MPTP-model of parkinsonism.
We screened for the p. A53TSNCA mutation a total of 347 cases of Greek origin with parkinsonism and/or dementia, collected over 15 years at the Neurogenetics Unit, Eginition Hospital, University of Athens.
These data suggest that phosphorylated α-synuclein accumulates in the retina in parallel with that in the brain, including in early stages preceding development of clinical signs of parkinsonism or dementia.
Our study is the first to uncover the potential link between manganese exposure, altered miRNA expression and parkinsonism: manganese exposure causes overexpression of SNCA and FGF-20 by diminishing miR-7 and miR-433 levels.
The operational definition requires clinical ascertainment of a levodopa-responsive parkinsonism with no "atypical" features, and pathological criteria based on the finding, usually at postmortem, of aggregates of α-synuclein in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites.
It is now well established that LB-type α-synuclein aggregates also occur in the peripheral autonomic nervous system in PD, from where it has been speculated they may progressively spread to the central nervous system through synaptically-connected brain networks and reach the substantia nigra to trigger herein dopaminergic dysfunction/degeneration and subsequent parkinsonism.