A member of a family with an autosomal dominant pattern of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with a TDP-43 pathological substrate in other members and no mutations in FTD-associated genes developed behavioral variant FTD followed by Progressive Supranuclear Palsy.
Dysregulation of RNA metabolism represents an important pathogenetic mechanism in both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) due to the involvement of the DNA/RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS and, more recently, of C9ORF72.
Most cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) are characterized by the abnormal accumulation of either the microtubule-associated protein tau or the transactive response DNA-binding protein with M(r) 43 kDa, TDP-43 (FTLD-tau and FTLD-TDP, respectively).
Collectively, these observations suggest that TDP-43 deposition leads to targeted RNA instability in ALS and FTD, and may ultimately cause cell death by disrupting energy production and protein synthesis pathways.
Pathologically, C9ORF72 expansion cases show a combination of FTLD-TDP and classical ALS with abnormal accumulation of TDP-43 into neuronal and oligodendroglial inclusions consistently seen in the frontal and temporal cortex, hippocampus and pyramidal motor system.
Results revealed: 1) prevalence is approximately 10%, 2) TDP-43 type B and FUS pathologies might have relatively high frequency of psychosis, 3) psychosis in FTD is higher with genetic mutations of C9ORF72 and GRN, 4) imaging researches did not achieve conclusive results, and 5) no treatment for psychosis in FTD is currently available.
TARDBP mutation screening should be considered in familial frontotemporal dementia cases, even without signs or symptoms of motor neuron disease, especially when other more frequent causes of genetic frontotemporal dementia (i.e.
Using an atomic force microscopy based biopanning protocol developed in our lab, we previously isolated 23 TDP-43 reactive antibody fragments with preference for human ALS brain tissue relative to frontotemporal dementia, a related neurodegeneration, and healthy samples from phage-displayed single chain antibody fragment (scFv) libraries.
These findings reveal a novel role for endogenous TDP-43 in neuronal specification and suggest that the FTD/ALS-associated RNA-binding protein TDP-43 functions to ensure the robustness of genetic control programs.
The seminal discoveries of accumulation of TDP-43 in most cases of ALS and the most frequent form of FTD, frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions, followed by identification of FUS as the novel pathological protein in a small subset of patients with ALS and various FTD subtypes provide clear evidence that these disorders are related.
Anti-TDP-43 immunohistochemistry and the recent development of novel tools, such as phosphorylation-specific TDP-43 antibodies, have increased our knowledge about the spectrum of pathological changes associated with FTLD-U and ALS and moreover, facilitated the neuropathological routine diagnosis of these conditions.
TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has been considered a signature protein in frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but not in ALS associated with the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene mutations (ALS1).
Recent evidence shows that TDP-43, a RNA-binding protein associated with frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, exists in a physiological and functional nuclear oligomeric form, whose destabilization may represent a prerequisite for misfolding, toxicity and subsequent pathological deposition.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) have distinct clinical features but a common pathology--cytoplasmic inclusions rich in transactive response element DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP43).
This breakthrough provides an opportunity to re-evaluate longstanding concepts regarding the cause and natural history of ALS, coming soon after the pathological unification of ALS with frontotemporal dementia through a shared pathological signature of cytoplasmic inclusions of the ubiquitinated protein TDP-43.