We previously reported that advanced prostate cancer (PCa) patients with multiple distant bone metastases had markedly decreased serum α2M levels (<20 mg/dl) and no detection ofα2M by immunoelectrophoresis (defined as α2M deficiency).
We conclude that alpha(2)M*-induced increase in GRP78 synthesis is caused by transcriptional upregulation of TFII-I which binds to the GRP78 promoter and thus potentiates its cell survival and antipoptotic functions in 1-LN prostate cancer cells.
As expected, lycopene treatment (2.5-10 μM) significantly inhibited the proliferation of LNCaP cells during incubation for 96 h. Lycopene significantly increased the protein and mRNA expression of PPARγ and LXRα at 24 and 48 h, while the increased in the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) was only evident 96 h. In addition, lycopene significantly decreased cellular total cholesterol levels and increased apoA1 protein expression at 96 h. Incubation of LNCaP cells with lycopene (10 μM) in the presence (20 μM) of a specific antagonist of PPARγ (GW9662) and LXRα (GGPP) restored the proliferation of LNCaP cells to the control levels and significantly suppressed protein expression of PPARγ and LXRα as well as increased cellular total cholesterol levels.
These findings indicate that tumor-derived MT1-MMP enhances tumor cell migration through initiation of an autocrine loop requiring ectodomain shedding of membrane-bound RANKL in prostate cancer cells, and that Src is a key downstream mediator of RANKL-induced migration of prostate cancer cells.
In human prostate biopsy samples, ABCA1 mRNA expression was ∼2-fold higher in the androgen deprivation therapy group than in subjects with benign prostatic hyperplasia or pretreatment prostate cancer groups.
Receiver operator characteristic curve analyses suggested that CpG island hypermethylation changes at GSTP1, APC, RASSF1a, PTGS2, and MDR1 in various combinations can distinguish primary prostate cancer from benign prostate tissues with sensitivities of 97.3-100% and specificities of 92-100%.