ECOG (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group) performance scores, CEA levels, CA19-9 levels, hemoglobin levels, lactate dehydrogenase levels, and liver metastasis ratios varied significantly between the low and high AGR groups (p < .05).
A decreased overall survival was significantly associated with peritoneal involvement (HR 1.944; p = 0.003), ascites (HR 2.055; p = 0.034), synchronous presentation (HR 1.679; p = 0.034) and increased serum CEA levels (HR 1.380; p = 0.010), but not with age > 50 (HR 0.946; p = 0.743), menopausal status (HR 1.565; p = 0.204), gastric origin (HR 1.600; p = 0.201), size > 5 cm (HR 1.292; p = 0.119), size > 10 cm (HR 0.925; p = 0.714), bilateral ovarian involvement (HR 1.113; p = 0.347), non-peritoneal extaovarian metastases (HR 1.648; p = 0.237), liver metastases (HR 1.118, p = 0.555), predominant signet ring cell morphology (HR 1.322; p = 0.208) and levels of CA125 (HR 0.933; p = 0.828) and CA19.9 (HR 0.996; p = 0.992).
High platelet count (H-PC) was found in 32%, and it was associated with a higher rate of palliative surgery (p < 0.001), extra-hepatic metastases (p < 0.001), bilobar liver disease (p = 0.007), presence of more than three metastases (p = 0.005), biggest metastasis larger than 5 cm (p < 0.001), and CEA level higher than 200 ng/mL (p = 0.035).
We conclude that MIC-1 can act as a candidate complementary biomarker for screening early-stage CRC by combination with CEA, and furthermore, for the first time, identify a promising prognostic indicator for monitoring recurrence with liver metastasis, to support strategies towards personalized therapy.
The protein expression of Rab5A was examined in 390 CRC specimens and the results showed that high expression of Rab5A was significantly correlated with tumor size (P = 0.008), serum CEA (P = 0.002), liver metastasis (P = 0.014) and clinical stage (P = 0.010).
The liver tumor biopsies were obtained from 40 patients suffering from CLM treated with radical surgery. mRNA expression levels of CEA, MMPs and TIMPs and a housekeeping gene (GAPDH) were quantified using RT-PCR.
CEA mRNA was detected in all patients with synchronous liver metastases, even though there was no significant correlation between the presence of CEA mRNA in the drainage venous blood and the clinicopathological findings.