This was accompanied with predomination of IL-10 over pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-17 (IL-17) in the sera as well as Gal-3 over TNF-α and IL-17 in feces of UC patients with MetS.
The pooled results using random effects model showed that statin use statistically significantly decreased CRP level (SMD= -0.97; 95% CI, -1.10, -0.85; P < 0.001; I<sup>2</sup>: 95.1%), TNF-α (SMD= -1.88; 95% CI, -2.40, -1.38; P < 0.001; I<sup>2</sup>: 97.2%), IL-6 (SMD= -1.67; 95% CI, -1.98, -1.34; P < 0.001; I<sup>2</sup>: 96.5%), and IL-1 concentrations (SMD= -8.35; 95% CI, -10.49, -6.22; P < 0.001; I<sup>2</sup>: 98.4%) among patients with MetS and related disorders.
There was an association between the presence of the rs1800796polymorphism of the IL-6 gene, with BMI (P = 0.031), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (P = 0.010) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (P = 0.037), while this genetic variant did not show any significant association with the presence of MetS as defined by the IDF.
Cardiac myocyte injury and stress markers (troponin and natriuretic peptides), markers of renal function (glomeral filtration rate, cystatin-C), and inflammation markers/mediators (interleukin- 6, CRP) are promising biomarkers of patients with AF and MetS.
To identify genetic variants in promoter areas of IL-6 -174 G>C and TNF-α -308 G>A in metabolic syndrome (Met S) and controls and associate them with Met S and serum cytokine levels.It was a cross-sectional study, including 224 cases of Met S and 200 controls.
Muscle-derived interleukin-6 (IL-6) not only enhances glucose and fat metabolism but also has an anti-inflammatory effect that can prevent the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome.
A tendency to increase the inflammatory markers IL-6 (p = 0.069) and MCP-1 (p = 0.067) was observed in those patients suffering from MS. An increase in the cardiovascular risk markers PAI-1 (p = 0.007) and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol ratio (p < 0.0001) was also found in the MS group.
In summary, the current meta-analysis demonstrated the promising impact of ALA administration on decreasing inflammatory markers such as CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α among patients with MetS and related disorders.
Factors associated with MS were female sex (prevalence ratio [PR]=2.16; 95% CI, 1.04-4.49), age-adjusted institutionalization time >50% (PR=2.38, 95% CI, 1.46-3.88), and high concentrations of interleukin-6 (PR=2.01; 95% CI, 1.21-3.32) and tumor necrosis factor-α (PR=1.70; 95% CI, 1.05-2.77).
The pooled results using random effects model indicated that melatonin supplementation significantly reduced C-reactive protein (CRP) (SMD = - 1.80; 95% CI - 3.27, - 0.32; P = 0.01; I<sup>2</sup>: 95.2) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) concentrations (SMD = - 2.02; 95% CI - 3.57, - 0.47; P = 0.01; I<sup>2</sup>: 91.2) among patients with MetS and related disorders; however, it did not affect tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations (SMD = - 1.87; 95% CI - 3.81, 0.07; P = 0.05; I<sup>2</sup>: 94.4).