Groups were evaluated at baseline for presence of MS, blood markers of metabolism, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score, and biochemical markers of inflammation (hs-CRP, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and PON-1).
The inverse relationship of PON-1 activity with free T<sub>4</sub> was not different in subjects with vs without MetS (P = .94), nor modified by the presence of its individual components (P ≥ .22 for each).
The apolipoprotein A5 Q139X, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) Hinf I, human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) 192Arg/Gln, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) Taq1B, adiponectin 45T>G and leptin (LEP) 25CAG were genotyped by real-time polymerase chain reaction in participants with and without MetS.
Shared pathways in both MetS and mood disorders are low grade inflammation, including increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins, increased lipid peroxidation with formation of malondialdehyde and oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), hypernitrosylation, lowered levels of antioxidants, most importantly zinc and paraoxonase (PON1), increased bacterial translocation (leaky gut), increased atherogenic index of plasma and Castelli risk indices; and reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c) cholesterol.
We studied oxidized LDL (OxLDL), OxLDL/LDL, OxLDL/HDL, lipoperoxides, autoantibodies against OxLDL (OxLDL-Ab), diene formation of LDL (lag phase), vitamin E, vitamin E/cholesterol and PON1 polymorphisms (-108C>T, 55T>A, and 192A>G) in 166 non-smoking type 2 diabetic patients, 119 fulfilling the criteria for the metabolic syndrome, 73 with atherosclerosis and 93 without atherosclerosis.
Two hundred and twenty-four subjects met the diagnostic criteria of MS. We found a significant interaction between MS and both the PON1 polymorphisms in determining the risk of coronary artery disease (P<0.05 by likelihood-ratio test).
Serum PON1 activity levels were found to be significantly lower, and lipid peroxide concentrations significantly higher, in subjects with the metabolic syndrome compared with unaffected subjects (P = 0.033 and < 0.001, respectively).