The study purpose was to investigate the non-invasive predictability of IDH mutation status, MGMT promoter methylation, and differentiation of low-grade versus high-grade glioma (LGG vs HGG) in newly diagnosed patients employing relaxation-compensated multipool chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI at 7.0 Tesla.
To determine the prognostic value of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation, and 1p/19q co-deletion in Japanese patients with malignant gliomas.
MGMT promoter methylation is a predictive biomarker for benefit from alkylating agent chemotherapy in patients with IDH1-wild-type, but not IDH1-mutant, malignant gliomas of World Health Organization grades III/IV.
Different molecular biomarkers were identified by genetic studies and some of these are used in neuro-oncology for the evaluation of glioma patients, in particular combined deletions of the chromosome arms 1p and 19q in oligodendroglial tumors, methylation status of the O-6 methylguanine- DNA methyltransferase gene promoter and alterations in the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway in adult malignant gliomas, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 gene mutations in diffuse gliomas, as well as BRAF status in pilocytic astrocytomas.
We investigated the impact of MGMT methylation and expression on survival of children with high-grade glioma (HGG) registered into the German HIT-GBM database receiving temozolomide (TMZ) as part of their treatment (n = 21 relapsed, n = 4 primary).
Our findings indicate that, in pHGG, (a) MGMT promoter methylation is less frequent than in adult malignant gliomas, (b) there is a high correlation between MGMT MSP and MGMT IHC, and (c) as in adults, MGMT status is associated with prognosis, although this observation has to be statistically validated on larger series of patients.
Aberrant methylation of the MGMT (O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) DNA-repair gene is a predictive marker for the response to chemotherapy with alkylating agents (e.g., temozolomide) in malignant gliomas.
Immediately after the operation, mRNA expression for drug-resistance genes was investigated in frozen samples of malignant gliomas from 55 patients (30 glioblastoma multiformes, 20 anaplastic astrocytomas and 5 anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors) by real-time quantitative RT-PCR with specific primers for MGMT.