As the sensitivity of only a few tumors to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) can be explained by the presence of EGFR tyrosine kinase (TK) domain mutations, there is a need to elucidate mechanisms of resistance to EGFR-targeted therapies in OS that do not harbor TK sensitizing mutations to develop new strategies to circumvent resistance to EGFR inhibitors.
Areas covered: The identification of genetic driver alterations led to the selection of patients who are most likely to benefit from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and rat osteosarcoma (ROS-1) tyrosine kinase inhibitors; on the other hand, in the absence of oncogenic alterations, platinum-based doublet chemotherapy regimens were the cornerstone of treatment.
Seventeen (28.33%), 15 (25.00%) and 15 (25.00%) osteosarcoma specimens presented with amplification of EGFR, ErbB3 and ErbB4 gene, respectively, which were significantly higher compared with non-neoplastic bone tissues.
Finally, we transfected EGFR and EGFR DEL (mutation with miR-141 binding site) in osteosarcoma cells, and detected the effects of miR-141 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and related proteins.
Preclinical studies using human OS xenografts revealed that only tumors expressing both EGFR and c-Fos responded to anti-EGFR therapy demonstrating that c-Fos can be considered as a novel biomarker predicting response to anti-EGFR treatment in OS patients.
However, the role of EGFR and HER-2 expression in osteosarcoma survival remains controversial and no previous study has simultaneously investigated the association of the expression of all the four HER family members with the prognostic significance of osteosarcoma.
We determined that AREG increases the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway via its interaction with the epidermal growth factor receptor, thus resulting in the enhanced cell migration of osteosarcoma.
We assessed the gene expression levels of three known targets in advanced gastric cancer, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2), and N-methyl-N-nitrosoguanidine human osteosarcoma transforming gene (MET), using the nCounter® assay (NanoString Technologies, Seattle, WA, USA) and compared these results with protein overexpression, detected by immunohistochemistry, to evaluate the performance of this new technology.
GAK appears to be essential for cell death because co-administration of gefitinib and luteolin to EGFR-deficient U2OS osteosarcoma cells also had a greater effect on cell viability than administration of either compound alone.