To provide an adrenal and neuronal-specific disease model, we established AAAS-gene knockdown in H295R human adrenocortical tumor cells and SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells by lentiviral short hairpin RNA transduction.
Putative methylation markers were selected from DAC-upregulated genes through a literature search and an upfront methylation-specific PCR on 20 primary neuroblastoma tumors, as well as through MBD- seq in combination with publicly available neuroblastoma tumor gene expression data.
We have demonstrated that the expression of MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3, and NY-ESO-1 can be upregulated on neuroblastoma cells following exposure to pharmacologic levels of the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine, DAC).
Sections from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor blocks from 52 neuroblastoma cases (17 with localized, 35 with advanced disease) were subjected to immunohistochemistry for P-gp and GST-pi expressions.
To rule out the possibility that multidrug resistance (MDR) genes are involved in development of acquired drug resistance in murine neuroblastoma (rMNB/MDL) cells made resistant to MDL, the expression of Mdr1a, Mdr1b, Mdr2 (multidrug resistance/P-glycoprotein), and Mrp-1 (multidrug resistance associated protein) was examined in rMNB-MDL cells.
Combination therapy showed a synergistic activity between doxorubicin and either bioconjugate or nanocarrier on BE(2)C. More interestingly, on BE(2)C/ADR we recorded both the reversion of doxorubicin resistance mechanism as a consequence of decreased P-gp expression (Western Blot analysis) and a synergistic effect on cell viability, confirming the proposed nanohybrid as a very promising starting point for further research in neuroblastoma treatment.
Hypermethylation of the miR-137 promoter and negative regulation of miR-137 by CAR contribute in part to reduced miR-137 expression and increased CAR and MDR1 expression in doxorubicin-resistant neuroblastoma cells.
MDR1 RNA levels were occasionally elevated in other untreated cancers, including neuroblastoma, acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) in adults, acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) in adults, and indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Mechanistically, the synergy was based on a lapatinib induced inhibition of the multidrug-resistance efflux transporter ABCB1, which is frequently expressed in resistant neuroblastoma cells, which allowed prolonged and elevated cytotoxicity of YM155.In addition, the drug combination (i.e. lapatinib plus YM155) decreased neuroblastoma tumor size in an in vivo model.