Furthermore, induced overexpression of miR-490-3p in GBM cell lines significantly inhibited key hallmarks including cellular proliferation, colony formation and spheroid formation, as well as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), with downregulation of multiple EMT transcription factors and promigratory genes (MMP9, CCL5, PIK3R1, ICAM1, ADAM17 and NOTCH1).
Of note, we identified a function for S518-Merlin, which is distinct from what has been reported when the expression of Merlin is diminished in relation to EGFR and NOTCH1 expression, providing first-time evidence that demonstrates that the phosphorylation of S518-Merlin in glioblastoma promotes oncogenic properties that are not only the result of inactivation of the tumor suppressor role of Merlin but also an independent process implicating a Merlin-driven regulation of NOTCH1 and EGFR.
Inhibition of the Notch1 pathway overcomes apoptosis resistance and sensitizes glioblastoma cells to apoptosis induced by ionizing radiation, the death ligand TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) or the Bcl-2/Bcl-XL inhibitor ABT-737.
Morphological analysis confirmed inhibition of NICD when U251 MG cells were treated with puPA, puPAR or pU2. uPA/uPAR down regulation inhibited Notch 1 mRNA in all three examined cell lines. uPA/uPAR shRNA down regulated nuclear activation of NF-κB subunits and phosphorylation of AKT/mTOR pathway in U251 MG and GBM xenografts. puPA down regulated NICD and HES induced phosphorylation of AKT/ERK and NF-κB.
Taken together, we confirmed the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of resveratrol on glioblastoma cells and revealed Notch-1 activation-dependent restoration of p53 as an important causative mechanism.
In this study, we quantified RNA expression levels of stem cell markers [CD133, Nestin, BMI-1, maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK), and Notch1-4] as well as RTKs (EGFR, ErbB4, VEGFR1-3, FGFR1, -2, PDGFRΑ, and PDGFRΒ) in 42 clinical samples of glioblastoma by the real-time RT-PCR method.
Western blot analysis of Notch 1 expression and activation showed that Notch 1 protein was overexpressed and/or activated in Ras-transformed astrocytes, in three of four GBM cell lines, and in four of five primary GBM samples.