Correction to: Mammalian Target of Rapamycin 2 (MTOR2) and C-MYC Modulate Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthesis in Glioblastoma (GBM) Cells Through Glutamine: Fructose-6-Phosphate Aminotransferase 1 (GFAT1).
Specifically, targeting cellular pathways frequently altered in glioblastoma, such as the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the p53 and the retinoblastoma (RB) pathways, or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene amplification or mutation, have failed to improve outcome, likely because of redundant compensatory mechanisms, insufficient target coverage related in part to the blood brain barrier, or poor tolerability and safety.
Here we show that in the highly lethal brain tumor glioblastoma (GBM), mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2), a critical core component of the growth factor signaling system, couples acetyl-CoA production with nuclear translocation of histone-modifying enzymes including pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) to globally alter histone acetylation.
In this review, we analyzed the rationale of targeting mTOR in GBM and the available preclinical and clinical evidence supporting the choice of this therapeutic approach, highlighting the different roles of mTORC1 and mTORC2 in GBM biology.
Overexpression of Rictor has been demonstrated to result in increased mechanistic target of rapamycin C2 (mTORC2) nucleation and activity leading to tumor growth and increased invasive characteristics in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).
MRP1 silencing in GBM tumour using MRP1-siRNA loaded pSiNPs was demonstrated in mice (82% reduction at the protein level 48 h post-injection), and it also produced antiproliferative effect in GBM by reducing the population of proliferative cells.
This phase II study was designed to determine the efficacy of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus administered daily with conventional radiation therapy and chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma.
This study aims to explore the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) pathway and its relationship with hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in the migration and invasion of human glioblastoma U87 cells under hypoxia.
As aggressive invasion and migration of tumors are associated with mesenchymal and stem-like cell properties, this study aimed to examine the effect of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors on these features in glioblastoma cells.
This study showed that hemodynamic abnormalities of glioblastoma were associated with genomics activation status of mTOR-EGFR pathway, however, the radiogenomics associations are different in enhancing and peri-enhancing area of glioblastoma.
Here we demonstrate that C11 also blocks cyclin D1 IRES-dependent initiation and demonstrates synergistic anti-GBM properties when combined with the mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase inhibitor PP242.