We assessed the familial correlation of PRO-C3 concentration, the shared gene effects between PRO-C3 concentration and liver steatosis and fibrosis, and the association between PRO-C3 concentration and genetic variants in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3), transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2), membrane-bound O-acyltransferase domain-containing (MBOAT), and glucokinase regulator (CGKR) genes.
A nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism rs738409 (rs738409" genes_norm="80339">I148M) in patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) predisposes susceptibility to NAFLD; however, its association with steatosis grade is inconsistent in the literature.
We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) rs738409 polymorphism and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its subtypes simple steatosis(SS) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).
75 (42.4%) patients tested positive for a PNPLA3 minor/major risk allele (G/C:66; G/G:9) showed comparable fibrosis stages (median F2 vs. F2; p = 0.292) and similar amounts of hepatic steatosis (CAP: 203.5 ± 41.9 vs. 215.5 ± 59.7 dB/m; p = 0.563) as compared to patients without a PNPLA3 risk allele.
A genetic variant in adiponutrin (PNPLA3) gene, rs738409 C/G, is associated with steatosis, severity, and progression of liver fibrosis in CHC patients, and predicts treatment outcome in difficult-to-cure HCV-infected patients with advanced fibrosis.
Frequencies of allele PNPLA3rs738409(G) in individuals with steatosis and normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and AST levels were lower than in alcoholics without steatosis and normal ALT/AST (P(combined) = 0.03).
The rs738409 genetic variant in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3, adiponutrin) gene has been implicated as a genetic determinant of the entire spectrum of liver diseases, ranging from steatosis, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and ultimately to HCC.
PNPLA3 rs738409[G] allele was significantly correlated with severe steatosis (P = 0.04), severe fibrosis at the time of enrollment (P = 0.0005) and fibrosis progression with an OR of 10.31 (95% CI 1.06 - 99.59, P = 0.04), after a mean follow-up time of 62.85 (95%CI: 52.21 - 76.15) months.
PNPLA3 p.148M/M genotype was negatively associated with SVR and early viral kinetics independently of steatosis, albeit only in difficult-to-cure G1/4 patients with advanced fibrosis, whereas stratification for the p.148M/M PNPLA3 genotype unmasked an association between IL28B CC genotype and more severe liver fibrosis.
Multivariate logistic regression identified PNPLA3 G allele (OR: 2.469, CI 95%: 1.203-5.068; p=0.014) and pediatric age (OR: 4.348; 1.577-11.905; p=0.004) as independent variables associated with moderate/severe steatosis.
This meta-analysis pooled four studies with 1135 cases of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) to evaluate the impact of PNPLA3 SNP on liver steatosis and also pooled five studies with 3713 cases of CHB to evaluate the impact of PNPLA3 SNP on cirrhosis.
Because PNPLA3rs738409, GCKR rs780094 and TM6SF2 rs58542926 variants are known to confer susceptibility to NAFLD, we assessed the influence of MBOAT7 rs641738 on hepatic steatosis, and serum levels of CK-18 fragment (a biomarker of hepatocellular injury and apoptosis for NAFLD) after adjusting the effects of PNPLA3, GCKR and TM6SF2 polymorphisms.
A recent finding that a nonsynonymous polymorphism in the PNPLA3 gene predicts the extent of steatosis in NAFLD has been replicated in at least eight studies, with several studies also demonstrating an association with fibrosis.
Using a 443 patient training set, protein biomarker discovery was performed using the highly multiplexed SOMAscan<sup>®</sup> proteomic assay, a set of 19 clinical variables, and the steatosis predisposing PNPLA3rs738409 single nucleotide polymorphism genotype status.