We assessed the familial correlation of PRO-C3 concentration, the shared gene effects between PRO-C3 concentration and liver steatosis and fibrosis, and the association between PRO-C3 concentration and genetic variants in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3), transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2), membrane-bound O-acyltransferase domain-containing (MBOAT), and glucokinase regulator (CGKR) genes.
A nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism rs738409 (rs738409" genes_norm="80339">I148M) in patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) predisposes susceptibility to NAFLD; however, its association with steatosis grade is inconsistent in the literature.
We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) rs738409 polymorphism and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its subtypes simple steatosis(SS) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).
75 (42.4%) patients tested positive for a PNPLA3 minor/major risk allele (G/C:66; G/G:9) showed comparable fibrosis stages (median F2 vs. F2; p = 0.292) and similar amounts of hepatic steatosis (CAP: 203.5 ± 41.9 vs. 215.5 ± 59.7 dB/m; p = 0.563) as compared to patients without a PNPLA3 risk allele.
A genetic variant in adiponutrin (PNPLA3) gene, rs738409 C/G, is associated with steatosis, severity, and progression of liver fibrosis in CHC patients, and predicts treatment outcome in difficult-to-cure HCV-infected patients with advanced fibrosis.
We used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to analyze the hepatic expression of PNPLA3 and lipid metabolism-related genes in 55 morbidly obese subjects with normal liver histology (NL, n = 18), simple steatosis (SS, n = 20), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, n = 17).
Frequencies of allele PNPLA3rs738409(G) in individuals with steatosis and normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and AST levels were lower than in alcoholics without steatosis and normal ALT/AST (P(combined) = 0.03).
The rs738409 genetic variant in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3, adiponutrin) gene has been implicated as a genetic determinant of the entire spectrum of liver diseases, ranging from steatosis, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and ultimately to HCC.
PNPLA3 rs738409[G] allele was significantly correlated with severe steatosis (P = 0.04), severe fibrosis at the time of enrollment (P = 0.0005) and fibrosis progression with an OR of 10.31 (95% CI 1.06 - 99.59, P = 0.04), after a mean follow-up time of 62.85 (95%CI: 52.21 - 76.15) months.
PNPLA3 p.148M/M genotype was negatively associated with SVR and early viral kinetics independently of steatosis, albeit only in difficult-to-cure G1/4 patients with advanced fibrosis, whereas stratification for the p.148M/M PNPLA3 genotype unmasked an association between IL28B CC genotype and more severe liver fibrosis.
Multivariate logistic regression identified PNPLA3 G allele (OR: 2.469, CI 95%: 1.203-5.068; p=0.014) and pediatric age (OR: 4.348; 1.577-11.905; p=0.004) as independent variables associated with moderate/severe steatosis.
This meta-analysis pooled four studies with 1135 cases of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) to evaluate the impact of PNPLA3 SNP on liver steatosis and also pooled five studies with 3713 cases of CHB to evaluate the impact of PNPLA3 SNP on cirrhosis.