This patient exhibited liver steatosis; he was neither diabetic, nor obese or alcoholic, but is a carrier of 2 polymorphisms, rs738409" genes_norm="80339">p.Ile148Met (rs738409) and p.Glu167Lys (rs58542926) on PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 gene, respectively, previously shown to be associated with nonalcoholic steatosis and fibrosis evolution.
Using a 443 patient training set, protein biomarker discovery was performed using the highly multiplexed SOMAscan<sup>®</sup> proteomic assay, a set of 19 clinical variables, and the steatosis predisposing PNPLA3rs738409 single nucleotide polymorphism genotype status.
At multivariable regression analysis, SGA at birth increased fourfold the likelihood of severe steatosis (odds ratio (OR) 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43-10.9, P=0.008) and threefold the likelihood of NAFLD Activity Score (NAS)≥5 (OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.06-8.33, P=0.037) independently of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and PNPLA3 genotype.
However, its association with non-invasive ultrasound- and magnetic resonance (MR)-based markers of liver fibrosis and steatosis, the enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) score, liver biopsy, as well as rs738409 in PNPLA3, has not been elucidated in NAFLD, so far.
The associations between the rs738409PNPLA3 gene polymorphism and steatosis and advanced fibrosis were tested under a recessive inheritance model using logistic regression analysis, including age, gender, BMI, ethnicity/color, HOMA-IR, alcohol intake, HCV genotype 3, and the rs58542926 TM6SF2 gene polymorphism as covariates.
Presence of minor allele (G) of PNPLA3 was also associated with moderate/severe steatosis (≥33%) both in patients with (OR: 2.405 [CI95%: 1.220-4.744], P=0.011) and without MetS (OR: 2.481 [CI95%: 1.172-5.250], P=0.018), but was only associated with NASH (OR: 2.002 [CI95%: 1.062-3.772], P=0.032) and liver fibrosis (OR: 2.646 [CI95%: 1.299-5.389], P=0.007) in patients without MetS.
We used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to analyze the hepatic expression of PNPLA3 and lipid metabolism-related genes in 55 morbidly obese subjects with normal liver histology (NL, n = 18), simple steatosis (SS, n = 20), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, n = 17).
The presence of the PNPLA3 allle [M] was associated with increased hepatic triglyceride content (P = .03), steatosis detected by magnetic resonance imaging (P = 0.04), and decreased serum glucose concentrations (P = .04).
The objectives of this study were to investigate in a group of obese children the association among the 167K allele of TM6SF2 gene and ALT, cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and hepatic steatosis, and to evaluate the potential interaction between this variant and the I148M patatin like phospholipase 3 gene (PNPLA3) polymorphism on liver enzymes.