This study aimed to confirm the association of the transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) E167K variant with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the degree of steatosis, as well as the additive effect of body mass index (BMI) or the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) I148M and TM6SF2 E167K variants in NAFLD.
The presence of the TM6SF2 c.499A allele in the donor (p=0.014), the PNPLA3 c.444G allele in the donor (p<0.001), posttransplant BMI (p<0.001) and serum triglycerides (p=0.047) independently predicted increased liver fat content on multivariable analysis whereas noncirrhotic liver disease as an indication for liver transplantation was associated with lower risk of steatosis (p=0.003).
Studies have shown that two polymorphisms were associated with steatosis and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in different populations: the Patatin-like Phospholipase Domain Containing 3 (PNPLA3) and Transmembrane 6 Superfamily Member 2 (TM6SF2).
We assessed the familial correlation of PRO-C3 concentration, the shared gene effects between PRO-C3 concentration and liver steatosis and fibrosis, and the association between PRO-C3 concentration and genetic variants in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3), transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2), membrane-bound O-acyltransferase domain-containing (MBOAT), and glucokinase regulator (CGKR) genes.
PNPLA3 rs738409[G] allele was significantly correlated with severe steatosis (P = 0.04), severe fibrosis at the time of enrollment (P = 0.0005) and fibrosis progression with an OR of 10.31 (95% CI 1.06 - 99.59, P = 0.04), after a mean follow-up time of 62.85 (95%CI: 52.21 - 76.15) months.
Based on a large monocentric cohort of Caucasian heavy drinkers we could recently provide evidence that PNPLA3 GG primarily correlated with signs of liver damage (steatohepatitis, ballooning) but less with steatosis.
This meta-analysis pooled four studies with 1135 cases of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) to evaluate the impact of PNPLA3 SNP on liver steatosis and also pooled five studies with 3713 cases of CHB to evaluate the impact of PNPLA3 SNP on cirrhosis.
Because PNPLA3rs738409, GCKR rs780094 and TM6SF2 rs58542926 variants are known to confer susceptibility to NAFLD, we assessed the influence of MBOAT7 rs641738 on hepatic steatosis, and serum levels of CK-18 fragment (a biomarker of hepatocellular injury and apoptosis for NAFLD) after adjusting the effects of PNPLA3, GCKR and TM6SF2 polymorphisms.
Since DAG (FA18:1) has been implicated in hepatic insulin resistance, the unaltered proportion of DAG (FA18:1) in I148MPNPLA3 carriers with fatty liver may explain the normal insulin sensitivity in these subjects.
The presence of the minor PNPLA3p.I148M risk allele increased the risk of developing NAFLD (OR = 3.29, P < 0.001) and was associated with higher steatosis, fibrosis, and serum CK18-M30 levels (all P < 0.05).